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Details Report for:
15-1133.00 - Software Developers, Systems Software

Research, design, develop, and test operating systems-level software, compilers, and network distribution software for medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, business, scientific, and general computing applications. Set operational specifications and formulate and analyze software requirements. May design embedded systems software. Apply principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis.

Sample of reported job titles: Developer, Infrastructure Engineer, Network Engineer, Publishing Systems Analyst, Senior Software Engineer, Software Architect, Software Developer, Software Engineer, Systems Coordinator, Systems Engineer

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
85   Core Modify existing software to correct errors, to adapt it to new hardware, or to upgrade interfaces and improve performance.
74   Core Develop or direct software system testing or validation procedures.
74   Core Direct software programming and development of documentation.
72   Core Consult with customers or other departments on project status, proposals, or technical issues, such as software system design or maintenance.
65   Core Analyze information to determine, recommend, and plan installation of a new system or modification of an existing system.
63   Core Consult with engineering staff to evaluate interface between hardware and software, develop specifications and performance requirements, or resolve customer problems.
63   Core Design or develop software systems, using scientific analysis and mathematical models to predict and measure outcome and consequences of design.
61   Core Prepare reports or correspondence concerning project specifications, activities, or status.
59   Core Confer with data processing or project managers to obtain information on limitations or capabilities for data processing projects.
58   Core Store, retrieve, and manipulate data for analysis of system capabilities and requirements.
58   Core Coordinate installation of software system.
80   Supplemental Monitor functioning of equipment to ensure system operates in conformance with specifications.
63   Supplemental Supervise and assign work to programmers, designers, technologists, technicians, or other engineering or scientific personnel.
62   Supplemental Advise customer about or perform maintenance of software system.
58   Supplemental Train users to use new or modified equipment.
52   Supplemental Specify power supply requirements and configuration.
49   Supplemental Evaluate factors such as reporting formats required, cost constraints, or need for security restrictions to determine hardware configuration.
49   Supplemental Use microcontrollers to develop control signals, implement control algorithms, or measure process variables, such as temperatures, pressures, or positions.
41   Supplemental Recommend purchase of equipment to control dust, temperature, or humidity in area of system installation.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Central processing unit CPU processors — Graphics processing unit GPU; Multi-core central processing unit CPU
Computer servers — Application servers
Desktop computers
High end computer servers — Directory servers
Integrated circuit testers — In circuit emulators ICE; Logic analyzers
Mainframe computers
Notebook computers
Personal digital assistant PDAs or organizers — Personal digital assistants PDA

Technology used in this occupation:

Analytical or scientific software — Dynamic modeling software; SAS software; Simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis SPICE; The MathWorks Simulink (see all 5 examples)
Application server software — BEA WebLogic Server; Oracle Application Server
Configuration management software — Automated installation software; IBM Rational ClearCase; Patch management software; Visible Razor (see all 5 examples)
Data base management system software — Computer Associates integrated data management system CA-IDMS; Distributed database management software; Microsoft SQL Server; MySQL software (see all 11 examples)
Data base reporting software — Hyperion software; Oracle Business Intelligence Discoverer; SAP Business Intelligence; SAP BusinessObjects Crystal Reports (see all 7 examples)
Data base user interface and query software — IBM DB2; IEA Software Emerald; Microsoft Access; Structured query language SQL
Development environment software — C; Embedded systems development software; IBM Rational Rose XDE Developer D93; Microsoft Visual Basic (see all 45 examples)
Object or component oriented development software — C++; Document Object Model DOM Scripting; Python; Simple API for XML SAX (see all 22 examples)
Operating system software — Microsoft Windows; UNIX; VxWorks software; Win CE (see all 17 examples)
Program testing software — Defect tracking software; Fault testing software; IBM Rational PurifyPlus; Unit testing software (see all 21 examples)
Transaction server software — Customer information control system CICS software; IBM Middleware; Microsoft Internet Information Service IIS; Object Management Group Object Request Broker (see all 6 examples)
Web platform development software — Allaire ColdFusion; JavaScript; Ruby on Rails *; Sun Microsystems JavaServer Pages JSP (see all 11 examples)

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

See all 42 T2 categories

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
97   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
74   Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
71   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
65   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
63   Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
54   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
51   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
44   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
43   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
40   Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
39   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
38   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
33   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
33   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
32   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
31   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
26   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
25   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
21   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
19   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
18   Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
18   Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
18   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
  Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
  Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
  Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
  Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
  Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
  Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
  Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
 Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
72   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
69   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
66   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
56   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
56   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
53   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
53   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
53   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
50   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
50   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
50   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
47   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
47   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
44   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
44   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
44   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
38   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
38   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
38   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
35   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
35   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
28   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
25   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
22   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
19   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
16   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
16   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
13   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
  Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
  Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
  Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
  Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
 Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
75   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
75   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
72   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
69   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
69   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
69   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
66   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
63   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
63   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
63   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
56   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
53   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
53   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
53   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
50   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
50   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
47   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
44   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
41   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
38   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
38   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
35   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
35   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
35   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
31   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
31   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
22   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
22   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
19   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
19   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
19   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
  Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
  Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
  Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
  Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
 Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
 Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
 Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
 Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
 Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
 Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
 Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
 Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
 Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
 Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
97   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
  • Prepare data for analysis.
87   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Identify information technology project resource requirements.
77   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Design software applications.
  • Modify software programs to improve performance.
76   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
73   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
71   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
  • Analyze project data to determine specifications or requirements.
  • Apply mathematical principles or statistical approaches to solve problems in scientific or applied fields.
67   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Collaborate with others to determine design specifications or details.
  • Collaborate with others to resolve information technology issues.
  • Communicate project information to others.
66   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
64   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
60   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
56   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
  • Develop testing routines or procedures.
54   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
48   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
48   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
  • Provide recommendations to others about computer hardware.
  • Provide technical support for software maintenance or use.
47   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
46   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
43   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
40   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
40   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
39   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
38   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
38   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
36   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
  • Teach others to use computer equipment or hardware.
35   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
  • Monitor computer system performance to ensure proper operation.
31   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
  • Assess database performance.
29   Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
29   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
27   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Assign duties or work schedules to employees.
  • Coordinate software or hardware installation.
  • Manage information technology projects or system activities.
  • Supervise information technology personnel.
23   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
22   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
22   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
21   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
21   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
19   Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
16   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
  Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
  Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
  Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
  Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
  Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
  Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Context
Work Context
98   Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
96   Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
96   Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
89   Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
88   Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
86   Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
86   Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
79   Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
78   Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
76   Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
75   Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
71   Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
65   Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
63   Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
59   Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
58   Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?
51   Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
50   Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
48   Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
45   Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
42   Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
41   Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
39   Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
38   Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
34   Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
34   Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
30   Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
30   Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
26   Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
18   Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
18   Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
17   Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
12   Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
  Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
  In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
  Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
  Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
  Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
  Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
  Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
  Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
  Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
  Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
  Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
  Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
  Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
  Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
  Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
  Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
  Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
  In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
  Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
 Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
 Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
 Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
 Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
 Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, environmental engineers, criminal investigators, and special agents.
SVP Range (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
77   Bachelor's degree
17   Master's degree
  Associate's degree

This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:

Computer Science — Computer and Information Sciences, General; Computer Engineering, General; Computer Science; Information Science/Studies
Engineering — Computer Engineering Technologies/Technicians, Other; Computer Engineering, General

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
100   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
78   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
50   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
28   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
22   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
11   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
91   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
89   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
85   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
83   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
80   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
78   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
77   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
77   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
76   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
75   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
73   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
70   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
63   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
60   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
57   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
44   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
78   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
75   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
72   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
67   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
61   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
61   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

15-1121.00 Computer Systems Analysts   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
15-1122.00 Information Security Analysts Bright Outlook
15-1131.00 Computer Programmers Bright Outlook
15-1132.00 Software Developers, Applications Bright Outlook
15-1134.00 Web Developers
15-1141.00 Database Administrators
15-1143.00 Computer Network Architects
15-1199.01 Software Quality Assurance Engineers and Testers Bright Outlook
15-1199.02 Computer Systems Engineers/Architects Bright Outlook
15-1199.05 Geographic Information Systems Technicians Bright Outlook   Green Occupation Green

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Wages & Employment Trends

National

Median wages (2012) $47.59 hourly, $99,000 annual
Employment (2012) 405,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Faster than average (15% to 21%) Faster than average (15% to 21%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 134,700
Top industries (2012)

State & National

          CareerOneStop

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

Find Jobs
for Software Developers, Systems Software

          mySkills myFuture

State & National Job Banks

          CareerOneStop

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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