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Details Report for:
19-1020.01 - Biologists

Research or study basic principles of plant and animal life, such as origin, relationship, development, anatomy, and functions.

Sample of reported job titles: Scientist, Biologist, Environmental Analyst, Research Scientist, Environmental Specialist, Fisheries Biologist, Research Biologist, Aquatic Scientist, Assistant Scientist, Marine Biologist

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
87   Core Collect and analyze biological data about relationships among and between organisms and their environment.
75   Core Supervise biological technicians and technologists and other scientists.
73   Core Program and use computers to store, process, and analyze data.
72   Core Prepare technical and research reports, such as environmental impact reports, and communicate the results to individuals in industry, government, or the general public.
68   Core Develop and maintain liaisons and effective working relations with groups and individuals, agencies, and the public to encourage cooperative management strategies or to develop information and interpret findings.
66   Core Prepare requests for proposals or statements of work.
53   Core Represent employer in a technical capacity at conferences.
74   Supplemental Study and manage wild animal populations.
70   Supplemental Study aquatic plants and animals and environmental conditions affecting them, such as radioactivity or pollution.
69   Supplemental Study basic principles of plant and animal life, such as origin, relationship, development, anatomy, and function.
69   Supplemental Teach or supervise students and perform research at universities and colleges.
65   Supplemental Plan and administer biological research programs for government, research firms, medical industries, or manufacturing firms.
64   Supplemental Measure salinity, acidity, light, oxygen content, and other physical conditions of water to determine their relationship to aquatic life.
61   Supplemental Prepare plans for management of renewable resources.
61   Supplemental Communicate test results to state and federal representatives and general public.
60   Supplemental Review reports and proposals, such as those relating to land use classifications and recreational development, for accuracy, adequacy, or adherence to policies, regulations, or scientific standards.
60   Supplemental Research environmental effects of present and potential uses of land and water areas, determining methods of improving environmental conditions or such outputs as crop yields.
57   Supplemental Identify, classify, and study structure, behavior, ecology, physiology, nutrition, culture, and distribution of plant and animal species.
51   Supplemental Develop methods and apparatus for securing representative plant, animal, aquatic, or soil samples.
48   Supplemental Study reactions of plants, animals, and marine species to parasites.
42   Supplemental Develop pest management and control measures, and conduct risk assessments related to pest exclusion, using scientific methods.
Not available Supplemental Cultivate, breed, and grow aquatic life, such as lobsters, clams, or fish.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Commercial fishing nets — Dip nets; Plankton nets
Dropping pipettes — Laboratory dropping pipettes; Micropipettes
Drying cabinets or ovens — Vertical drying ovens
Liquid scintillation counters — Fluid scintillation counters
Open stream current meters — Water flow gauges
Petri plates or dishes — Petri dishes
Robotic or automated liquid handling systems — Automatic pipetters; Liquid handling robots
Scanning electron microscopes — Scanning electron microscopes SEM
Standard fermentation units — Fermenters
Stereo or dissecting light microscopes — Dissecting microscopes; Zoom microscopes

Technology used in this occupation:

Analytical or scientific software — Blue Tractor Software DNADynamo; Gene Codes Sequencher; VayTek VoxBlast; Visual Molecular Dynamics VMD * (see all 35 examples)
Data base user interface and query software — Microsoft Access
Development environment software — National Instruments LabVIEW
Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop software
Internet browser software — Web browser software
Object or component oriented development software — Practical extraction and reporting language Perl; Sun Microsystems Java
Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
Word processing software — Microsoft Word

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

See all 115 T2 categories

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
98   Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
76   Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
74   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
71   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
53   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
51   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
49   Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
47   Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
40   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
38   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
33   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
32   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
31   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
31   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
29   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
27   Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
26   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
18   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
18   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
16   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
16   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
15   Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
15   Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
15   Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
15   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
13   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
10   Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
  History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
  Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
  Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
  Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
 Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
88   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
75   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
72   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
66   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
66   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
63   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
63   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
63   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
63   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
60   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
60   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
56   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
56   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
56   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
56   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
50   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
50   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
47   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
44   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
41   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
41   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
38   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
38   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
35   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
31   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
28   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
28   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
22   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
22   Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
16   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
10   Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
  Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
 Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
75   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
75   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
72   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
69   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
69   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
69   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
66   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
66   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
66   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
66   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
66   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
66   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
63   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
56   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
56   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
56   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
56   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
50   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
47   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
44   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
44   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
41   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
41   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
38   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
38   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
38   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
35   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
31   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
31   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
31   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
28   Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
25   Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
25   Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
22   Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
22   Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
19   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
19   Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
19   Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
16   Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
  Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
  Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
  Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
  Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
  Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
  Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
  Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
  Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
 Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
88   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Prepare proposal documents or grant applications.
  • Prepare research or technical reports on environmental issues.
  • Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations.
86   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
  • Analyze chemical compounds or substances.
86   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
84   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Communicate results of environmental research.
  • Communicate with government agencies.
84   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
81   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
  • Classify organisms based on their characteristics or behavior.
  • Conduct research of processes in natural or industrial ecosystems.
  • Examine characteristics or behavior of living organisms.
  • Research diseases or parasites.
  • Research environmental impact of industrial or development activities.
80   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
74   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
71   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Develop biological research methods.
  • Develop plans to manage natural or renewable resources.
  • Plan biological research.
69   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
  • Provide technical information or assistance to public.
68   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
68   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
67   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
66   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
61   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
59   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
  • Develop collaborative relationships between departments or with external organizations.
59   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
55   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
53   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
  • Review plans or proposals for environmental conservation.
50   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
49   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
48   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
  • Instruct college students in physical or life sciences.
45   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
45   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
42   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
39   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
38   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Supervise scientific or technical personnel.
38   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
  • Collect environmental data or samples.
36   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
35   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
34   Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
33   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
33   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
32   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
30   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
29   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
28   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
24   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
  • Care for plants or animals.
24   Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
19   Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
15   Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Work Context
Percentage of Top Responses
Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?


100     Every day
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?


90     Every day
Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?


88     Every day
Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?


83     Every day
17     Once a week or more but not every day
Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?


58     Constant contact with others
30     Contact with others most of the time
12     Contact with others about half the time
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?


57     Extremely important
32     Very important
Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?


47     A lot of freedom
33     Some freedom
13     Limited freedom
Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?


37     Very important
16     Important
Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?


44     A lot of freedom
37     Some freedom
12     Limited freedom
Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.


61     More than 40 hours
34     40 hours
Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?


24     Every day
52     Once a week or more but not every day
23     Once a month or more but not every week
Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?


37     Extremely important
36     Very important
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?


18     Continually or almost continually
43     More than half the time
32     About half the time
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?


41     Every day
14     Once a week or more but not every day
36     Once a year or more but not every month
Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?


11     Every day
32     Once a month or more but not every week
Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?


28     Extremely competitive
15     Highly competitive
36     Moderately competitive
20     Slightly competitive
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?


27     Extremely important
27     Very important
17     Important
23     Not important at all
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?


44     High responsibility
22     Moderate responsibility
17     Limited responsibility
Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?


18     Once a week or more but not every day
19     Once a year or more but not every month
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?


22     Important results
25     Minor results
Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?


23     Very serious
17     Fairly serious
Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?


24     Every day
27     Once a month or more but not every week
45     Once a year or more but not every month
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?


46     High responsibility
14     Moderate responsibility
23     Limited responsibility
18     No responsibility
Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?


39     Once a year or more but not every month
Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?


18     Extremely important
20     Very important
45     Fairly important
16     Not important at all
Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?


46     Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
43     I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office)
Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?


11     Once a week or more but not every day
25     Once a month or more but not every week
48     Once a year or more but not every month
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?


29     More than half the time
15     About half the time
28     Less than half the time
24     Never
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?


15     Every day
15     Once a month or more but not every week
57     Once a year or more but not every month
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?


13     More than half the time
25     About half the time
62     Less than half the time
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?


14     Continually or almost continually
17     More than half the time
45     Less than half the time
24     Never
Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?


14     Every day
32     Once a month or more but not every week
26     Once a year or more but not every month
28     Never
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?


33     Once a month or more but not every week
52     Once a year or more but not every month
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?


27     Once a week or more but not every day
22     Once a year or more but not every month
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?


25     About half the time
71     Less than half the time
Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?


11     Every day
13     Once a month or more but not every week
16     Once a year or more but not every month
52     Never
Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?


15     Once a week or more but not every day
12     Once a month or more but not every week
33     Once a year or more but not every month
Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?


17     Highly automated
23     Moderately automated
55     Not at all automated
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?


14     Once a month or more but not every week
36     Once a year or more but not every month
Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?


23     Once a month or more but not every week
17     Once a year or more but not every month
Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?


45     Once a year or more but not every month
42     Never
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?


52     Once a year or more but not every month
37     Never
Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?


14     Once a month or more but not every week
31     Once a year or more but not every month
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?


26     Once a year or more but not every month
64     Never
Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?


13     Once a month or more but not every week
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?


21     Once a year or more but not every month
68     Never
Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?


17     Once a year or more but not every month
77     Never
Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?


33     Less than half the time
67     Never
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?


24     Once a year or more but not every month
75     Never
Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?


84     Never
Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?


24     Less than half the time
76     Never
Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?


11     Once a year or more but not every month
87     Never
Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?


13     Less than half the time
87     Never
Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?


94     Regular (established routine, set schedule)
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)


95     Not important at all
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?


97     Never

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.
SVP Range (8.0 and above)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
24   Bachelor's degree
24   Master's degree
24   Post-doctoral training

This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:

Life Sciences — Anatomy; Animal Genetics; Animal Physiology; Aquatic Biology/Limnology; Biochemistry; Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Other (see all 42 programs)

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Credentials

Find Certifications

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
100   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
50   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
39   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
33   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
11   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
  Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
99   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
94   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
87   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
83   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
82   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
79   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
78   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
78   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
76   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
76   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
74   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
74   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
72   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
71   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
58   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
43   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
78   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
72   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
61   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
56   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
56   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
33   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

11-9121.00 Natural Sciences Managers   Green Occupation Green
19-1013.00 Soil and Plant Scientists Green Occupation
19-1021.00 Biochemists and Biophysicists
19-1022.00 Microbiologists
19-1023.00 Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists Green Occupation
19-1029.02 Molecular and Cellular Biologists Bright Outlook
19-1029.03 Geneticists   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
19-2041.00 Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health Green Occupation
25-1042.00 Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1052.00 Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages data collected from Biological Scientists.
Employment data collected from Biological Scientists.
Industry data collected from Biological Scientists.

Median wages (2013) $34.04 hourly, $70,800 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 104,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Slower than average (3% to 7%) Slower than average (3% to 7%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 37,400
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Government (36% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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