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Details Report for:
27-4021.00 - Photographers

Photograph people, landscapes, merchandise, or other subjects, using digital or film cameras and equipment. May develop negatives or use computer software to produce finished images and prints. Includes scientific photographers, aerial photographers, and photojournalists.

Sample of reported job titles: Advertising Photographer, Commercial Photographer, Newspaper Photographer, Owner/Photographer, Photo Editor, Photographer, Photojournalist, Portrait Photographer, Sports Photographer, Studio Owner

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Tasks  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
95   Core Use traditional or digital cameras, along with a variety of equipment such as tripods, filters, and flash attachments.
94   Core Determine desired images and picture composition, selecting and adjusting subjects, equipment, and lighting to achieve desired effects.
93   Core Adjust apertures, shutter speeds, and camera focus based on a combination of factors such as lighting, field depth, subject motion, film type, and film speed.
91   Core Create artificial light, using flashes and reflectors.
89   Core Manipulate and enhance scanned or digital images to create desired effects, using computers and specialized software.
86   Core Transfer photographs to computers for editing, archiving, and electronic transmission.
86   Core Determine project goals, locations, and equipment needs by studying assignments and consulting with clients or advertising staff.
83   Core Review sets of photographs to select the best work.
80   Core Perform general office duties such as scheduling appointments, keeping books, and ordering supplies.
78   Core Estimate or measure light levels, distances, and numbers of exposures needed, using measuring devices and formulas.
77   Core Test equipment prior to use to ensure that it is in good working order.
76   Core Set up, mount, or install photographic equipment and cameras.
75   Core Select and assemble equipment and required background properties, according to subjects, materials, and conditions.
74   Core Take pictures of individuals, families, and small groups, either in studio or on location.
74   Core Direct activities of workers who are setting up photographic equipment.
72   Core Perform maintenance tasks necessary to keep equipment working properly.
53   Core Produce computer-readable, digital images from film, using flatbed scanners and photofinishing laboratories.
92   Supplemental Develop and print exposed film, using chemicals, touchup tools, and developing and printing equipment.
69   Supplemental Enhance, retouch, and resize photographs and negatives, using airbrushing and other techniques.
63   Supplemental Develop visual aids and charts for use in lectures or to present evidence in court.
54   Supplemental Load and unload film.
54   Supplemental Employ a variety of specialized photographic materials and techniques, including infrared and ultraviolet films, macro photography, photogrammetry and sensitometry.
52   Supplemental Engage in research to develop new photographic procedures and materials.
50   Supplemental Write photograph captions.
47   Supplemental Mount, frame, laminate, or lacquer finished photographs.
47   Supplemental Send film to photofinishing laboratories for processing.
46   Supplemental Set up photographic exhibitions for the purpose of displaying and selling work.
34   Supplemental License the use of photographs through stock photo agencies.
29   Supplemental Photograph legal evidence at crime scenes, in hospitals, or in forensic laboratories.

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
84   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
80   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
71   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
67   Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
55   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
54   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
51   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
50   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
43   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
41   Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
41   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
37   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
31   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
29   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
25   Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
25   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
25   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
22   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
22   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
20   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
17   Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
16   Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
16   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
16   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
13   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
12   Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
12   Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
12   History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
  Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
  Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
  Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
  Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
69   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
63   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
53   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
53   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
50   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
50   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
50   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
50   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
50   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
50   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
50   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
50   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
47   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
47   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
47   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
47   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
44   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
38   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
31   Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
31   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
31   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
28   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
28   Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
25   Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
25   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
25   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
25   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
22   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
16   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
16   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
13   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
  Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
  Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
72   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
69   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
66   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
66   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
63   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
63   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
60   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
60   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
56   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
56   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
53   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
53   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
53   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
53   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
53   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
53   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
53   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
53   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
50   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
50   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
47   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
47   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
47   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
44   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
44   Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
44   Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
41   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
38   Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
38   Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
35   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
31   Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
28   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
25   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
25   Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
25   Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
25   Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
25   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
25   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
25   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
25   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
25   Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
22   Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
22   Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
22   Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
22   Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
19   Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
13   Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
13   Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
10   Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
10   Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
 Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
91   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Create computer-generated graphics or animation.
88   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
  • Convert data among multiple digital or analog formats.
80   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
79   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
79   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
  • Obtain copyrights or other legal permissions.
  • Research new technologies.
  • Review art or design materials.
78   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
71   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
71   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Determine technical requirements of productions or projects.
  • Select materials or props.
67   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
67   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
63   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
62   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
59   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
58   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
  • Apply finishes to artwork, crafts, or displays.
  • Arrange artwork, products, or props.
  • Construct distinctive physical objects for artistic, functional, or commercial purposes.
  • Set up still or video cameras or related equipment.
57   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
  • Maintain inventories of materials, equipment, or products.
57   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
54   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
53   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
51   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Maintain records, documents, or other files.
  • Write informational material.
51   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
51   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
50   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Confer with clients to determine needs.
50   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
50   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
47   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Coordinate activities of production personnel.
44   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
43   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
42   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
41   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
38   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
38   Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
35   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
  • Operate still or video cameras or related equipment.
34   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
31   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
31   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
31   Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
29   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
29   Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
  • Maintain recording or broadcasting equipment.
26   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
23   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
16   Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Work Context
Percentage of Top Responses
Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?


88     Every day
Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?


72     Every day
28     Once a week or more but not every day
Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?


64     Extremely competitive
36     Highly competitive
Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?


44     A lot of freedom
40     Some freedom
Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?


31     Constant contact with others
58     Contact with others most of the time
Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.


64     More than 40 hours
28     40 hours
Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?


38     Every day
42     Once a week or more but not every day
15     Once a month or more but not every week
Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?


20     Every day
60     Once a week or more but not every day
20     Once a month or more but not every week
Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?


24     A lot of freedom
52     Some freedom
20     Limited freedom
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?


35     Every day
38     Once a week or more but not every day
12     Once a month or more but not every week
15     Once a year or more but not every month
Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?


40     Extremely important
32     Very important
16     Fairly important
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?


12     Extremely important
56     Very important
24     Important
Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?


36     Very close (near touching)
24     Moderately close (at arm's length)
20     Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
16     I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office)
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?


28     Continually or almost continually
32     More than half the time
16     About half the time
16     Less than half the time
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?


16     Very important results
40     Important results
24     Moderate results
16     Minor results
Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?


60     Once a week or more but not every day
28     Once a month or more but not every week
12     Once a year or more but not every month
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?


28     More than half the time
60     About half the time
Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?


28     Once a week or more but not every day
56     Once a month or more but not every week
12     Once a year or more but not every month
Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?


28     Very important
44     Important
12     Fairly important
Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?


20     Every day
24     Once a week or more but not every day
12     Once a month or more but not every week
36     Once a year or more but not every month
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?


36     High responsibility
24     Moderate responsibility
20     Limited responsibility
12     No responsibility
Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?


12     Seasonal (only during certain times of the year)
80     Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?


28     Very important
28     Important
24     Fairly important
16     Not important at all
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?


12     Every day
19     Once a week or more but not every day
31     Once a month or more but not every week
15     Once a year or more but not every month
23     Never
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?


12     More than half the time
40     About half the time
44     Less than half the time
Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?


28     Once a week or more but not every day
32     Once a month or more but not every week
24     Once a year or more but not every month
16     Never
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?


12     High responsibility
32     Moderate responsibility
36     Limited responsibility
16     No responsibility
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?


48     Once a month or more but not every week
28     Once a year or more but not every month
16     Never
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?


13     More than half the time
21     About half the time
46     Less than half the time
17     Never
Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?


40     Once a month or more but not every week
48     Once a year or more but not every month
Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?


32     Once a month or more but not every week
60     Once a year or more but not every month
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?


16     Once a week or more but not every day
28     Once a month or more but not every week
32     Once a year or more but not every month
24     Never
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?


13     More than half the time
21     About half the time
54     Less than half the time
13     Never
Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?


12     Very serious
28     Serious
24     Fairly serious
36     Not serious at all
Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?


13     About half the time
79     Less than half the time
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?


32     Once a month or more but not every week
44     Once a year or more but not every month
24     Never
Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?


92     Less than half the time
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?


33     Once a month or more but not every week
38     Once a year or more but not every month
29     Never
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?


88     Once a year or more but not every month
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?


28     Important
36     Fairly important
32     Not important at all
Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?


16     Once a month or more but not every week
72     Once a year or more but not every month
12     Never
Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?


12     About half the time
76     Less than half the time
12     Never
Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?


12     Moderately automated
48     Slightly automated
32     Not at all automated
Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?


60     Once a year or more but not every month
28     Never
Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?


16     Once a month or more but not every week
40     Once a year or more but not every month
44     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?


20     Once a month or more but not every week
28     Once a year or more but not every month
52     Never
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?


64     Once a year or more but not every month
36     Never
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?


48     Once a year or more but not every month
48     Never
Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?


13     Once a month or more but not every week
33     Once a year or more but not every month
54     Never
Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?


52     Less than half the time
48     Never
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?


40     Once a year or more but not every month
56     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?


24     Once a year or more but not every month
68     Never
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)


84     Not important at all
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?


16     Once a year or more but not every month
80     Never
Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?


92     Never
Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?


12     Once a year or more but not every month
88     Never
Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?


96     Never

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed
Education Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.
Related Experience Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include food service managers, electricians, agricultural technicians, legal secretaries, occupational therapy assistants, and medical assistants.
SVP Range (6.0 to < 7.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
28   High school diploma or equivalent Help
20   Associate's degree
16   Less than high school diploma

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Credentials

Find Training Find Certifications Find Apprenticeships

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
83   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
61   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
39   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
22   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
17   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
  Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
91   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
88   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
87   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
86   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
85   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
84   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
83   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
82   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
81   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
77   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
76   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
74   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
72   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
65   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
63   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
59   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
67   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
61   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
56   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
45   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
42   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
28   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

25-3021.00 Self-Enrichment Education Teachers
25-9041.00 Teacher Assistants Bright Outlook
27-4031.00 Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Motion Picture
27-4032.00 Film and Video Editors
39-7011.00 Tour Guides and Escorts
39-7012.00 Travel Guides
41-2031.00 Retail Salespersons   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
43-4081.00 Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks Bright Outlook
51-5111.00 Prepress Technicians and Workers
51-9151.00 Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2013) $14.08 hourly, $29,280 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 136,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Slower than average (3% to 7%) Slower than average (3% to 7%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 20,300
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Self-Employed (60% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Photographers external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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