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Details Report for:
39-9021.00 - Personal Care Aides

Assist the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities with daily living activities at the person's home or in a care facility. Duties performed at a place of residence may include keeping house (making beds, doing laundry, washing dishes) and preparing meals. May provide assistance at non-residential care facilities. May advise families, the elderly, convalescents, and persons with disabilities regarding such things as nutrition, cleanliness, and household activities.

Sample of reported job titles: Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA), Home Health Aide (HHA), Home Care Aide, Caregiver, Personal Care Aide, Personal Care Attendant (PCA), Personal Care Assistant (PCA), Companion, Care Provider, Homemaker

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
88   Core Administer bedside or personal care, such as ambulation or personal hygiene assistance.
86   Core Prepare and maintain records of client progress and services performed, reporting changes in client condition to manager or supervisor.
85   Core Perform housekeeping duties, such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes or dishes, or running errands.
84   Core Care for individuals or families during periods of incapacitation, family disruption, or convalescence, providing companionship, personal care, or help in adjusting to new lifestyles.
84   Core Perform healthcare-related tasks, such as monitoring vital signs and medication, under the direction of registered nurses or physiotherapists.
81   Core Plan, shop for, or prepare nutritious meals or assist families in planning, shopping for, or preparing nutritious meals.
81   Supplemental Transport clients to locations outside the home, such as to physicians' offices or on outings, using a motor vehicle.
79   Supplemental Instruct or advise clients on issues such as household cleanliness, utilities, hygiene, nutrition, or infant care.
75   Supplemental Participate in case reviews, consulting with the team caring for the client, to evaluate the client's needs and plan for continuing services.
71   Supplemental Train family members to provide bedside care.
69   Supplemental Provide clients with communication assistance, typing their correspondence or obtaining information for them.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Bedpans for general use — Bedpans
Blood pressure cuff kits — Blood pressure cuffs
Canes or cane accessories — Canes
Crutches or crutch accessories — Crutches
Electronic medical thermometers — Electronic patient thermometers
Glucose monitors or meters — Glucometers
Lower extremity prosthetic devices — Lower-body prosthetic devices
Paging controllers — Paging systems
Patient lifts or accessories — Hoyer lifts; Mechanical lifts; Patient lifting devices
Patient shifting boards or accessories — Transfer boards
Shower or bath chairs or seats for the physically challenged — Hydraulic tub seats; Shower chairs
Telecommunication devices TDD or teletypewriters TTY for the physically challenged — Telecommunication devices TDD; Teletypewriters TTY
Upper extremity prosthetic devices — Upper-body prosthetic devices
Voice synthesizers for the physically challenged — Speech synthesizers

Technology used in this occupation:

Calendar and scheduling software — August Systems Private Duty Home-Care Agency Software
Data base reporting software — Mi-Co Mi-Forms software
Electronic mail software — Email software; Voltage SecureMail
Optical character reader OCR or scanning software — Computer reading software
Spreadsheet software
Word processing software

See all 42 T2 categories

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
66   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
61   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
58   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
53   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
51   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
50   Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
49   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
49   Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
46   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
45   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
41   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
41   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
40   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
40   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
37   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
36   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
35   Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
34   Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
28   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
27   Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
26   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
25   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
20   Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
20   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
20   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
19   Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
18   Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
17   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
15   Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
14   Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
13   History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
  Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
69   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
63   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
63   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
56   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
56   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
53   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
50   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
50   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
47   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
44   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
41   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
41   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
41   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
41   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
38   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
35   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
31   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
31   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
31   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
28   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
28   Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
28   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
25   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
19   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
19   Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
16   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
13   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
  Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
 Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
 Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
 Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
63   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
63   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
60   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
60   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
56   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
56   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
56   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
53   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
50   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
50   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
47   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
44   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
41   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
41   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
41   Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
41   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
41   Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
41   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
41   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
38   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
38   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
38   Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
38   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
38   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
35   Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
35   Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
35   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
35   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
35   Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
35   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
31   Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
31   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
31   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
31   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
28   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
28   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
28   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
28   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
25   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
25   Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
19   Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
10   Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
10   Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
  Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
  Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
  Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
  Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
  Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
  Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
 Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
83   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
  • Administer basic health care or medical treatments.
  • Assist individuals with special needs.
78   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
72   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
71   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
67   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
67   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
  • Monitor health or behavior of people or animals.
66   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
60   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
59   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
58   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
54   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
  • Perform housekeeping duties.
53   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
52   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Document client health or progress.
  • Maintain client information or service records.
52   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
48   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
48   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
  • Prepare foods or meals.
48   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
47   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
47   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
46   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
45   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
45   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
45   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
  • Teach health or hygiene practices.
44   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
43   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
41   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
40   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
38   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
37   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
35   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Develop plans for programs or services.
30   Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
  • Drive vehicles to transport patrons.
24   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
24   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
22   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
19   Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
18   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
17   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
  • Provide counsel, comfort, or encouragement to individuals or families.
15   Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
13   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
12   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
  Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Context
Work Context
81   Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
78   Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
77   Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
70   Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
69   Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
68   Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
61   Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
58   Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
57   Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?
56   Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
56   Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
54   Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
54   Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
53   Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
52   Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
50   Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
48   Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
47   Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
43   Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
40   Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
40   Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
39   Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
39   Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
39   Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
39   In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
39   Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
38   Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
37   Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
36   Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
36   Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
34   Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
30   Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
30   Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
29   Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
29   Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
27   Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
24   Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
21   Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
19   Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
16   Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
16   Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
14   Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
13   Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
13   Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
11   Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
11   Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
10   Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
  Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
  Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
  Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
  Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
  Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
  Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
  In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
  Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
 Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
 Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed
Education These occupations usually require a high school diploma.
Related Experience Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.
Job Training Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.
SVP Range (4.0 to < 6.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
59   High school diploma or equivalent Help
22   Post-secondary certificate Help
11   Less than high school diploma

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Credentials

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
100   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
72   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
56   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
22   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
11   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
  Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
91   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
89   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
88   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
86   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
86   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
85   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
84   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
82   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
82   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
76   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
73   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
73   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
73   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
72   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
71   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
68   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
78   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
50   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
50   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
39   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
33   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
28   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

31-1011.00 Home Health Aides   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
31-2012.00 Occupational Therapy Aides Bright Outlook
31-2022.00 Physical Therapist Aides Bright Outlook
33-9092.00 Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service Workers Bright Outlook
39-4021.00 Funeral Attendants
39-9011.00 Childcare Workers Bright Outlook
41-2012.00 Gaming Change Persons and Booth Cashiers
51-3011.00 Bakers
53-3011.00 Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians Bright Outlook
53-6061.00 Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2013) $9.67 hourly, $20,100 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 1,191,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Much faster than average (22% or higher) Much faster than average (22% or higher)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 666,000
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Health Care and Social Assistance (77% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Personal Care Aides external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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