Summary Report for:
19-3093.00 - Historians
Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters.
Sample of reported job titles: Archivist, College Archivist, Director of Education, Director of Programs, Historian, Professor, Professor of History, Research Associate, Special Collections Librarian, University Archivist
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Organize data, and analyze and interpret its authenticity and relative significance.
- Gather historical data from sources such as archives, court records, diaries, news files, and photographs, as well as collect data sources such as books, pamphlets, and periodicals.
- Trace historical development in a particular field, such as social, cultural, political, or diplomatic history.
- Conduct historical research as a basis for the identification, conservation, and reconstruction of historic places and materials.
- Teach and conduct research in colleges, universities, museums, and other research agencies and schools.
- Conduct historical research, and publish or present findings and theories.
- Speak to various groups, organizations, and clubs to promote the aims and activities of historical societies.
- Prepare publications and exhibits, or review those prepared by others, to ensure their historical accuracy.
- Research the history of a particular country or region, or of a specific time period.
- Present historical accounts in terms of individuals or social, ethnic, political, economic, or geographic groupings.
- Determine which topics to research, or pursue research topics specified by clients or employers.
- Organize information for publication and for other means of dissemination, such as use in CD-ROMs or Internet sites.
- Research and prepare manuscripts in support of public programming and the development of exhibits at historic sites, museums, libraries, and archives.
- Advise or consult with individuals and institutions regarding issues such as the historical authenticity of materials or the customs of a specific historical period.
- Translate or request translation of reference materials.
- Collect detailed information on individuals for use in biographies.
- Interview people to gather information about historical events and to record oral histories.
- Recommend actions related to historical art, such as which items to add to a collection or which items to display in an exhibit.
- Coordinate activities of workers engaged in cataloging and filing materials.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Assistive listening devices — Analog-to-digital converters
- Digital cameras — Digital still cameras
- Digital voice recorders — Digital audio recorders
- Inkjet printers — Computer inkjet printers
- Laser printers — Computer laser printers
- Microfiche or microfilm viewers — Microfiche readers; Microfilm readers
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Personal computers
- Photocopiers — Photocopying equipment
- Scanners — Data input scanners
Technology used in this occupation:
- Analytical or scientific software — SPSS; Statistical analysis software
- Data base management system software — Database management systems
- Data base user interface and query software — Gutenberg-e *; Reference management software; Structured query language SQL
- Data mining software — Text mining software; TokenX *
- Desktop publishing software — Adobe Systems Adobe InDesign; QuarkXPress
- Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat; Web Scrapbook *
- Electronic mail software — Email software
- Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop software
- Information retrieval or search software — Archival databases; ArchiveGrid *; Searchable online catalogs; Smithsonian Institution digital archives * (see all 11 examples)
- Internet browser software — Page markers; Web browser software
- Map creation software — Digital mapping software; Geographic information system (GIS) software
- Music or sound editing software — Audio editing software
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
- Optical character reader OCR or scanning software — Scanning software
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver
- Word processing software — Corel WordPerfect; Microsoft Word
* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
Detailed Work Activities
- Collect information from people through observation, interviews, or surveys.
- Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations.
- Instruct college students in social sciences or humanities disciplines.
- Collect archival data.
- Conduct historical research.
- Electronic Mail — 90% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 87% responded “Extremely important.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 88% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 81% responded “Every day.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 79% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Contact With Others — 87% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 87% responded “Extremely important.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 76% responded “Extremely important.”
- Deal With External Customers
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 20% responded “Important results.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 19% responded “High responsibility.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 12% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 11% responded “Important.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 24% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Physical Proximity — 17% responded “Slightly close (e.g., shared office).”
- Letters and Memos — 79% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 21% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
- Consequence of Error — 21% responded “Not serious at all.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 22% responded “Never.”
- Exposed to Contaminants
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 74% responded “40 hours.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 23% responded “Never.”
- Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions
- Time Pressure — 21% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings
- Spend Time Standing — 26% responded “Less than half the time.”
- In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment
- Public Speaking — 14% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 19% responded “Never.”
- Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — 12% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
Interest code: I
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$26.86 hourly, $55,870 annual|
|Employment (2012)||4,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Slower than average (3% to 7%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||800|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Historians . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.