Human Resources Specialists

Recruit, screen, interview, or place individuals within an organization. May perform other activities in multiple human resources areas.

Sample of reported job titles: Corporate Recruiter, Employment Representative, HR Analyst (Human Resources Analyst), HR Coordinator (Human Resources Coordinator), HR Generalist (Human Resources Generalist), Human Resources Representative (HR Rep), Human Resources Specialist (HR Specialist), Personnel Analyst, Personnel Officer, Recruiter

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks

  • Interpret and explain human resources policies, procedures, laws, standards, or regulations.
  • Hire employees and process hiring-related paperwork.
  • Maintain current knowledge of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines and laws, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
  • Prepare or maintain employment records related to events, such as hiring, termination, leaves, transfers, or promotions, using human resources management system software.
  • Address employee relations issues, such as harassment allegations, work complaints, or other employee concerns.
  • Review employment applications and job orders to match applicants with job requirements.
  • Inform job applicants of details such as duties and responsibilities, compensation, benefits, schedules, working conditions, or promotion opportunities.
  • Select qualified job applicants or refer them to managers, making hiring recommendations when appropriate.
  • Schedule or conduct new employee orientations.
  • Maintain and update human resources documents, such as organizational charts, employee handbooks or directories, or performance evaluation forms.
  • Confer with management to develop or implement personnel policies or procedures.
  • Contact job applicants to inform them of the status of their applications.
  • Conduct exit interviews and ensure that necessary employment termination paperwork is completed.
  • Interview job applicants to obtain information on work history, training, education, or job skills.
  • Perform searches for qualified job candidates, using sources such as computer databases, networking, Internet recruiting resources, media advertisements, job fairs, recruiting firms, or employee referrals.
  • Provide management with information or training related to interviewing, performance appraisals, counseling techniques, or documentation of performance issues.
  • Analyze employment-related data and prepare required reports.
  • Advise management on organizing, preparing, or implementing recruiting or retention programs.
  • Develop or implement recruiting strategies to meet current or anticipated staffing needs.
  • Administer employee benefit plans.
  • Schedule or administer skill, intelligence, psychological, or drug tests for current or prospective employees.
  • Conduct reference or background checks on job applicants.
  • Review and evaluate applicant qualifications or eligibility for specified licensing, according to established guidelines and designated licensing codes.
  • Evaluate recruitment or selection criteria to ensure conformance to professional, statistical, or testing standards, recommending revisions, as needed.
  • Coordinate with outside staffing agencies to secure temporary employees, based on departmental needs.
  • Evaluate selection or testing techniques by conducting research or follow-up activities and conferring with management or supervisory personnel.

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Technology Skills

  • Accounting software — Intuit QuickBooks Hot technology ; Sage 50 Accounting; Tax software
  • Analytical or scientific software — Assessment software; IBM SPSS Statistics Hot technology ; SAS statistical software; StataCorp Stata
  • Application server software — GitHub Hot technology ; Oracle WebLogic Server Hot technology
  • Business intelligence and data analysis software — IBM Cognos Impromptu Hot technology ; MicroStrategy Hot technology ; Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition Hot technology ; Qlik Tech QlikView Hot technology ; 1 more
  • Cloud-based data access and sharing software — Google Drive Hot technology ; Microsoft SharePoint Hot technology ; Slack
  • Communications server software — IBM Domino
  • Configuration management software — Perforce Helix software
  • Customer relationship management CRM software — Blackbaud The Raiser's Edge; Oracle Eloqua; Salesforce software Hot technology ; Vendor management system software
  • Data base management system software — Teradata Database Hot technology
  • Data base reporting software — Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services SSRS; SAP Crystal Reports Hot technology
  • Data base user interface and query software — Airtable; Blackboard software; LinkedIn Hot technology ; Microsoft SQL Server Hot technology ; 7 more
  • Data mining software — Google Analytics Hot technology
  • Desktop communications software — Skype
  • Desktop publishing software — Adobe Systems Adobe InDesign Hot technology ; Microsoft Publisher
  • Development environment software — Microsoft Visual Basic Hot technology ; Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications VBA Hot technology
  • Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat Hot technology ; Adobe Systems Adobe LifeCycle Enterprise Suite
  • Electronic mail software — IBM Notes Hot technology ; Microsoft Outlook Hot technology
  • Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML Hot technology ; IBM InfoSphere DataStage
  • Enterprise resource planning ERP software Hot technology — Microsoft Dynamics GP Hot technology ; NetSuite ERP Hot technology ; Oracle Hyperion Hot technology ; Oracle JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Hot technology ; 8 more
  • Enterprise system management software — IBM Power Systems software
  • Financial analysis software — Oracle E-Business Suite Financials
  • Geographic information system — ESRI ArcGIS software Hot technology
  • Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Creative Cloud Hot technology ; Adobe Systems Adobe Illustrator Hot technology ; Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop Hot technology ; SmugMug Flickr Hot technology ; 1 more
  • Human resources software — ADP Workforce Now Hot technology ; Kronos Workforce HR; Lawson Human Resource Management; Oracle Taleo Hot technology ; 63 more
  • Information retrieval or search software — LexisNexis
  • Internet browser software — Microsoft Internet Explorer; Web browser software
  • Medical software — MEDITECH software Hot technology
  • Object or component oriented development software — Advanced business application programming ABAP Hot technology
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office Hot technology
  • Operating system software — Apple macOS Hot technology ; Microsoft Windows Hot technology ; Oracle Solaris Hot technology
  • Presentation software — Google Slides; Microsoft PowerPoint Hot technology
  • Process mapping and design software — Microsoft Visio Hot technology
  • Project management software — Microsoft Project Hot technology ; Oracle Primavera Enterprise Project Portfolio Management Hot technology
  • Sales and marketing software — Google AdWords Hot technology ; Marketo Marketing Automation Hot technology
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel Hot technology
  • Time accounting software — Kronos Workforce Payroll; MPAY Millennium
  • Video conferencing software — Cisco Webex; FaceTime; Google Meet; Zoom
  • Video creation and editing software — Apple Final Cut Pro; Loom; YouTube Hot technology
  • Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver; Facebook Hot technology ; Social media sites Hot technology
  • Web platform development software — Drupal Hot technology ; Enterprise JavaBeans; Hypertext markup language HTML Hot technology
  • Word processing software — Evernote; Google Docs Hot technology ; Microsoft Word Hot technology
Hot technology Hot Technologies are requirements frequently included in employer job postings.

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities

  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
  • Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
  • Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
  • Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
  • Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
  • Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
  • Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
  • Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
  • Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
  • Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
  • Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
  • Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
  • Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
  • Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
  • Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
  • Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
  • Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
  • Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
  • Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.

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Detailed Work Activities

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Work Context

  • Electronic Mail — 100% responded “Every day.”
  • Telephone — 100% responded “Every day.”
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 95% responded “Every day.”
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 97% responded “Every day.”
  • Contact With Others — 79% responded “Constant contact with others.”
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 81% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Letters and Memos — 63% responded “Every day.”
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 51% responded “Some freedom.”
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 49% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 64% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 22% responded “Important results.”
  • Spend Time Sitting — 50% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — 72% responded “Very important.”
  • Frequency of Decision Making — 23% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — 40% responded “Every day.”
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 34% responded “Very important.”
  • Time Pressure — 49% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Deal With External Customers — 26% responded “Important.”
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 40% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — 70% responded “40 hours.”
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 41% responded “About half the time.”
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 35% responded “Very high responsibility.”
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 34% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 32% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Public Speaking — 35% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone

Title
Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education
Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience
A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training
Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples
Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range
2-4 years of preparation (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications
State licenses
Apprenticeships
Have a career path or location in mind? Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to find apprenticeship opportunities near you.

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Worker Requirements

Skills

  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
  • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
  • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
  • Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
  • Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
  • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
  • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
  • Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
  • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
  • Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
  • Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.

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Knowledge

  • Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
  • Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
  • Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
  • Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
  • Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.

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Education

How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:

  • 47%
     
    responded: Bachelor’s degree required

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities

  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
  • Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
  • Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.

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Interests

Interest code: ECS
Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
  • Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
  • Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
  • Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

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Work Values

  • Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
  • Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
  • Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

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Work Styles

  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
  • Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
  • Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
  • Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
  • Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2021)
$29.95 hourly, $62,290 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2020)
674,800 employees
Projected growth (2020-2030)
Faster than average (10% to 15%)
Projected job openings (2020-2030)
73,400
State trends
Top industries (2020)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data external site and 2020-2030 employment projections external site. “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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More Information

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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