Summary Report for:
13-2023.00 - Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate
Appraise real estate, exclusively, and estimate its fair value. May assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules.
Sample of reported job titles: Appraiser, Assessor, Certified Real Estate Appraiser, Commercial Appraiser, County Assessor, Field Appraiser, Real Estate Appraiser, Real Property Appraiser, Tax Assessor, Valuation Consultant
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Compute final estimation of property values, taking into account such factors as depreciation, replacement costs, value comparisons of similar properties, and income potential.
- Prepare written reports that estimate property values, outline methods by which the estimations were made, and meet appraisal standards.
- Inspect new construction and major improvements to existing structures to determine values.
- Collect and analyze relevant data to identify real estate market trends.
- Prepare and maintain current data on each parcel assessed, including maps of boundaries, inventories of land and structures, property characteristics, and any applicable exemptions.
- Explain assessed values to property owners and defend appealed assessments at public hearings.
- Identify the ownership of each piece of taxable property.
- Inspect properties, considering factors such as market value, location, and building or replacement costs to determine appraisal value.
- Complete and maintain assessment rolls that show the assessed values and status of all property in a municipality.
- Review information about transfers of property to ensure its accuracy, checking basic information on buyers, sellers, and sales prices and making corrections as necessary.
- Explain real and personal property taxes to property owners.
- Conduct regular reviews of property within jurisdictions to determine changes in property due to construction or demolition.
- Establish uniform and equitable systems for assessing all classes and kinds of property.
- Examine income records and operating costs of income properties.
- Evaluate land and neighborhoods where properties are situated, considering locations and trends or impending changes that could influence future values.
- Maintain familiarity with aspects of local real estate markets.
- Search public records for transactions such as sales, leases, and assessments.
- Check building codes and zoning bylaws to determine any effects on the properties being appraised.
- Verify legal descriptions of properties by comparing them to county records.
- Interview persons familiar with properties and immediate surroundings, such as contractors, home owners, and realtors, to obtain pertinent information.
- Photograph interiors and exteriors of properties to assist in estimating property value, substantiate findings, and complete appraisal reports.
- Obtain county land values and sales information about nearby properties to aid in establishment of property values.
- Examine the type and location of nearby services, such as shopping centers, schools, parks, and other neighborhood features, to evaluate their impact on property values.
- Estimate building replacement costs, using building valuation manuals and professional cost estimators.
- Draw land diagrams to be used in appraisal reports to support findings.
- Testify in court as to the value of a piece of real estate property.
- Calculate tax bills for properties by multiplying assessed values by jurisdiction tax rates.
- Approve applications for property tax exemptions or deductions.
- Analyze trends in sales prices, construction costs, and rents, to assess property values or determine the accuracy of assessments.
- Determine taxability of properties, using methods such as field inspection, structural measurement, calculation, sales analysis, market trend studies, and income and expense analysis.
- Accounting software — CPR International GeneralCOST Estimator
- Analytical or scientific software — Construction Management Software ProEst; MicroSolve CAMA; WinEstimator WinEst; WinGap (see all 13 examples)
- Calendar and scheduling software — Govern Software Land and Permits Management System
- Data base user interface and query software — Database software; Microsoft Access ; Visual PAMSPro; Yardi software (see all 14 examples)
- Desktop publishing software — ACI Appraiser's Choice
- Electronic mail software — Microsoft Outlook
- Financial analysis software — Cost estimation software; CPR Visual Estimator; RPIS Silent CMA; TietoEnator ProMatch (see all 12 examples)
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Bradford ClickFORMS; Wilson's Computer Applications RealEasy Photos Plus
- Information retrieval or search software — Online title search and property report software
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Map creation software — Emerald Data Deed-Chek; Geomechanical design analysis GDA software; Greenbrier Graphics Deed Plotter; Informatik MapDraw Deed Mapper (see all 7 examples)
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Operating system software — Microsoft Windows
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Tax preparation software — Manatron MVP Tax
- Video conferencing software — Google Meet
- Word processing software — Concierge Systems Report Concierge; Microsoft Word ; ValueTech Report Builder
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Carbon monoxide analyzer — Carbon monoxide detectors
- Desktop computers
- Electronic charts or maps or atlases — Appraisal, mapping, and comparison data reporting systems; Electronic maps; Mapping or location-based analysis systems; Real estate mapping and property description systems (see all 7 examples)
- Laser measuring systems — Handheld distance meters; Laser measuring devices; Ultrasonic distance measurers
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Personal digital assistant PDAs or organizers — Personal digital assistants PDA
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
Detailed Work Activities
- Appraise property values.
- Prepare financial documents, reports, or budgets.
- Analyze market conditions or trends.
- Maintain data in information systems or databases.
- Interpret financial information for others.
- Examine financial records.
- Calculate data to inform organizational operations.
- Verify application data to determine program eligibility.
- Prepare financial documents.
- Verify accuracy of records.
- Advise real estate clients.
- Evaluate condition of properties.
- Explain financial information to customers.
- Explain regulations, policies, or procedures.
- Develop business or financial information systems.
- Gather financial records.
- Update professional knowledge.
- Create images of data, locations, or products.
- Estimate costs of goods or services.
- Testify at legal or legislative proceedings.
- Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
- Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
- Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
- Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
- Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
- Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
- Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
- Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
- In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
- Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
- Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
- Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
- Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
|Title||Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.|
|Related Experience||A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.|
|Job Zone Examples||Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.|
|SVP Range||(7.0 to < 8.0)|
Interest code: ECR Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wage data for Property Appraisers and Assessors.
Employment data for Property Appraisers and Assessors.
Industry data for Property Appraisers and Assessors.
|Median wages (2020)||$28.20 hourly, $58,650 annual|
|Employment (2020)||78,700 employees|
|Projected growth (2020-2030)||Slower than average (1% to 5%)|
|Projected job openings (2020-2030)||6,300|
|Top industries (2020)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2020 wage data and 2020-2030 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- American Society of Appraisers
- American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers
- American Society of Home Inspectors
- Appraisal Institute
- CCIM Institute
- International Association of Assessing Officers
- International Right of Way Association
- National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers
- National Association of Realtors
- National Society of Professional Engineers
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Property appraisers and assessors
- The Appraisal Foundation
- Worldwide ERC