Summary Report for:
15-1243.00 - Database Architects
Design strategies for enterprise databases, data warehouse systems, and multidimensional networks. Set standards for database operations, programming, query processes, and security. Model, design, and construct large relational databases or data warehouses. Create and optimize data models for warehouse infrastructure and workflow. Integrate new systems with existing warehouse structure and refine system performance and functionality.
Sample of reported job titles: Data Officer, Database Analyst, Database Architect, Database Consultant, Database Developer, Database Programmer, Information Architect, Information Modeling Engineer Specialist, Information Technology Architect (IT Architect), System Engineer
Also see: Data Warehousing Specialists
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Design databases to support business applications, ensuring system scalability, security, performance and reliability.
- Develop database architectural strategies at the modeling, design and implementation stages to address business or industry requirements.
- Collaborate with system architects, software architects, design analysts, and others to understand business or industry requirements.
- Develop data models for applications, metadata tables, views or related database structures.
- Set up database clusters, backup, or recovery processes.
- Create and enforce database development standards.
- Develop and document database architectures.
- Design database applications, such as interfaces, data transfer mechanisms, global temporary tables, data partitions, and function-based indexes to enable efficient access of the generic database structure.
- Document and communicate database schemas, using accepted notations.
- Identify, evaluate and recommend hardware or software technologies to achieve desired database performance.
- Demonstrate database technical functionality, such as performance, security and reliability.
- Develop or maintain archived procedures, procedural codes, or queries for applications.
- Develop load-balancing processes to eliminate down time for backup processes.
- Provide technical support to junior staff or clients.
- Identify and correct deviations from database development standards.
- Plan and install upgrades of database management system software to enhance database performance.
- Develop data model describing data elements and how they are used, following procedures and using pen, template or computer software.
- Develop methods for integrating different products so they work properly together such as customizing commercial databases to fit specific needs.
- Establish and calculate optimum values for database parameters, using manuals and calculator.
- Identify and evaluate industry trends in database systems to serve as a source of information and advice for upper management.
- Review project requests describing database user needs to estimate time and cost required to accomplish project.
- Test programs or databases, correct errors, and make necessary modifications.
- Train users and answer questions.
- Work as part of a project team to coordinate database development and determine project scope and limitations.
- Write and code logical and physical database descriptions and specify identifiers of database to management system or direct others in coding descriptions.
- Access software — Access management software; Citrix
- Administration software — Redgate SQL Server; SolarWinds
- Analytical or scientific software — IBM SPSS Statistics ; Minitab ; SAS ; The MathWorks MATLAB (see all 8 examples)
- Application server software — Docker ; Red Hat OpenShift ; Red Hat WildFly ; Spring Boot (see all 7 examples)
- Backup or archival software — Data Recovery Software SQL Server Data Recovery; EMC NetWorker; Oracle Recovery Manager; Veritas NetBackup (see all 12 examples)
- Business intelligence and data analysis software — IBM Cognos Impromptu ; MicroStrategy ; Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition ; Qlik Tech QlikView (see all 6 examples)
- Clustering software — Cluster server software; Oracle Real Application Cluster RAC
- Communications server software — IBM Domino
- Computer aided design CAD software — Autodesk Revit
- Configuration management software — Perforce Helix software; Puppet ; Red Hat Ansible Engine; VMWare (see all 6 examples)
- Content workflow software — Atlassian JIRA
- Customer relationship management CRM software — Blackbaud The Raiser's Edge; Oracle Eloqua; Salesforce software
- Data base management system software — Amazon DynamoDB ; Elasticsearch ; MongoDB ; NoSQL (see all 45 examples)
- Data base reporting software — Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services ; Oracle Reports; Oracle SQL Plus; SAP Crystal Reports (see all 7 examples)
- Data base user interface and query software — Apache Hive ; Blackboard software; Oracle JDBC ; Transact-SQL (see all 16 examples)
- Data mining software — Google Analytics ; IBM InfoSphere Warehouse; Rapid-I RapidMiner
- Desktop communications software — Skype
- Desktop publishing software — Microsoft Publisher
- Development environment software — Apache Ant ; Common business oriented language COBOL ; Go ; Microsoft PowerShell (see all 22 examples)
- Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat ; IBM Content Manager
- Electronic mail software — IBM Notes ; Microsoft Exchange ; Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise application integration software — Atlassian Bamboo ; IBM WebSphere ; Microsoft SQL Server Integration Services SSIS ; Oracle Fusion Middleware (see all 12 examples)
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — Microsoft Dynamics GP ; NetSuite ERP ; Oracle Hyperion ; Oracle JD Edwards EnterpriseOne (see all 13 examples)
- Enterprise system management software — IBM Power Systems software; Splunk Enterprise
- Expert system software — Ansible software ; Apache Mahout
- File versioning software — Apache Subversion SVN ; Git
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Microsoft Visio
- Information retrieval or search software — Apache Avro; Data validation software; LexisNexis
- Manufacturing execution system MES software — CA Easytrieve Report Generator
- Map creation software — ESRI ArcGIS software ; Geographic information system GIS software
- Medical software — Epic Systems
- Metadata management software — CA Erwin Data Modeler; IBM Rational System Architect; SAP PowerDesigner; Talend Data Fabric (see all 20 examples)
- Multi-media educational software — Nearpod
- Network conferencing software — LogMeIn GoToWebinar
- Network monitoring software — Nagios ; Wireshark ; Zabbix
- Network security and virtual private network VPN equipment software — Virtual private networking VPN software
- Network security or virtual private network VPN management software — Database security software
- Object or component oriented development software — Advanced business application programming ABAP ; Apache Spark ; jQuery ; Scala (see all 17 examples)
- Object oriented data base management software — Hibernate ORM; IBM Informix; Object database management system ODBMS; PostgreSQL
- Office suite software — Google Drive ; Microsoft Office
- Operating system software — Bash ; Microsoft Windows Server ; Red Hat Enterprise Linux ; UNIX Shell (see all 19 examples)
- Platform interconnectivity software — Amazon Web Services AWS CloudFormation
- Portal server software — Apache HTTP Server
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Program testing software — Database testing software; Hewlett Packard LoadRunner; JUnit ; Selenium (see all 5 examples)
- Project management software — Confluence ; Microsoft Project ; Microsoft SharePoint ; Oracle Primavera Enterprise Project Portfolio Management
- Requirements analysis and system architecture software — Database capacity planning software; Unified modeling language UML
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Storage media loading software — Intel Data Migration Software
- Storage networking software — Amazon Simple Storage Service S3 ; Storage area network SAN software
- Transaction security and virus protection software — Encryption software; McAfee; Symantec
- Transaction server software — Customer information control system CICS
- Video conferencing software — Cisco Systems Webex; Google Meet; LogMeIn GoToMeeting
- Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver; Google Sites
- Web platform development software — Backbone.js ; Google AngularJS ; Microsoft ASP.NET Core MVC ; React (see all 27 examples)
- Word processing software — 3M Post-it App; Google Docs ; Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Desktop computers
- Hard disk arrays — Redundant array of independent disks RAID systems
- Hard disk drives
- Laser fax machine — Laser facsimile machines
- Mainframe computers
- Notebook computers
- Personal computers
- Photocopiers — Copy machines
- Server load balancer — Load balancers
- Tape arrays — Tape libraries
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
Detailed Work Activities
- Create databases to store electronic data.
- Develop procedures for data management.
- Develop models of information or communications systems.
- Collaborate with others to determine design specifications or details.
- Design computer modeling or simulation programs.
- Develop database parameters or specifications.
- Develop performance metrics or standards related to information technology.
- Document technical specifications or requirements.
- Communicate project information to others.
- Document design or development procedures.
- Evaluate utility of software or hardware technologies.
- Provide recommendations to others about computer hardware.
- Assess database performance.
- Create electronic data backup to prevent loss of information.
- Provide technical support for software maintenance or use.
- Resolve computer software problems.
- Install computer software.
- Analyze data to identify trends or relationships among variables.
- Analyze market or customer related data.
- Coordinate project activities with other personnel or departments.
- Develop guidelines for system implementation.
- Estimate time or monetary resources needed to complete projects.
- Modify software programs to improve performance.
- Train others in computer interface or software use.
- Write computer programming code.
- Electronic Mail — 96% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 83% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 91% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 70% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 52% responded “Every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 71% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 50% responded “Extremely important.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 46% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 48% responded “Very important.”
- Contact With Others — 42% responded “Contact with others most of the time.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 46% responded “Some freedom.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 57% responded “Very important.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 54% responded “Important results.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 39% responded “Extremely important.”
- Time Pressure — 38% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 38% responded “More than half the time.”
- Level of Competition — 43% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 43% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Letters and Memos — 30% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.|
|Related Experience||A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.|
|Job Zone Examples||Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.|
|SVP Range||(7.0 to < 8.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
Interest code: ICE Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wage data for Database Administrators and Architects.
Employment data for Database Administrators and Architects.
Industry data for Database Administrators and Architects.
|Median wages (2020)||$47.53 hourly, $98,860 annual|
|Employment (2019)||132,500 employees|
|Projected growth (2019-2029)||Much faster than average (8% or higher)|
|Projected job openings (2019-2029)||9,900|
|Top industries (2019)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2020 wage data and 2019-2029 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2019-2029). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.