Summary Report for:
23-1021.00 - Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers
Conduct hearings to recommend or make decisions on claims concerning government programs or other government-related matters. Determine liability, sanctions, or penalties, or recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or settlements.
Sample of reported job titles: Adjudicator, Administrative Hearing Officer, Administrative Judge, Administrative Law Judge, Appeals Examiner, Appeals Referee, Claims Adjudicator, Hearing Officer, Judge, Workers' Compensation Hearings Officer
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Prepare written opinions and decisions.
- Monitor and direct the activities of trials and hearings to ensure that they are conducted fairly and that courts administer justice while safeguarding the legal rights of all involved parties.
- Determine existence and amount of liability according to current laws, administrative and judicial precedents, and available evidence.
- Research and analyze laws, regulations, policies, and precedent decisions to prepare for hearings and to determine conclusions.
- Conduct hearings to review and decide claims regarding issues such as social program eligibility, environmental protection, or enforcement of health and safety regulations.
- Review and evaluate data on documents, such as claim applications, birth or death certificates, or physician or employer records.
- Recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or compromise settlements according to laws, regulations, policies, and precedent decisions.
- Rule on exceptions, motions, and admissibility of evidence.
- Confer with individuals or organizations involved in cases to obtain relevant information.
- Issue subpoenas and administer oaths in preparation for formal hearings.
- Explain to claimants how they can appeal rulings that go against them.
- Authorize payment of valid claims and determine method of payment.
- Conduct studies of appeals procedures in field agencies to ensure adherence to legal requirements and to facilitate determination of cases.
- Data base user interface and query software — Microsoft Access ; Online databases
- Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat
- Electronic mail software — Email software; Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — SAP software
- Information retrieval or search software — LexisNexis; Thomson Reuters WestLaw
- Instant messaging software
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Legal management software — Courtroom scheduling software
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Operating system software — Microsoft Windows
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Video conferencing software — Videoconferencing software
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Desktop computers
- Digital video disk players or recorders — Digital video players
- Digital voice recorders — Digital audio recorders
- Gavels or sounding blocks — Gavels
- Laser fax machine — Laser facsimile machines
- Laser printers — Computer laser printers
- Microphones — Courtroom microphones
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Personal computers
- Special purpose telephones — Multiline telephone systems
- Tablet computers
- Teleconference equipment — Teleconferencing equipment
- Videoconferencing systems — Videoconferencing equipment
- Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
Detailed Work Activities
- Prepare written decisions for legal proceedings.
- Direct courtroom activities or procedures.
- Make decisions in legal cases.
- Research relevant legal materials to aid decision making.
- Evaluate information related to legal matters in public or personal records.
- Conduct hearings to investigate legal issues.
- Identify implications for cases from legal precedents or other legal information.
- Provide legal advice to clients.
- Rule on admissibility of legal proceedings.
- Interview claimants to get information related to legal proceedings.
- Administer oaths to court participants.
- Prepare legal documents.
- Authorize payments to settle legal disputes.
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 98% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 88% responded “Very important results.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 88% responded “Extremely important.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 89% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 81% responded “Every day.”
- Electronic Mail — 84% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 73% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Contact With Others — 71% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 60% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Time Pressure — 68% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 64% responded “Every day.”
- Deal With External Customers — 77% responded “Extremely important.”
- Letters and Memos — 72% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 49% responded “Every day.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 41% responded “Every day.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 56% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 58% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 54% responded “Extremely important.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 42% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 51% responded “Extremely important.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 44% responded “Extremely important.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 34% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Physical Proximity — 42% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Consequence of Error — 32% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Level of Competition — 33% responded “Moderately competitive.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 34% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 25% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
Interest code: EIS Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2019)||$47.05 hourly, $97,870 annual|
|Employment (2018)||15,200 employees|
|Projected growth (2018-2028)||Slower than average (2% to 3%)|
|Projected job openings (2018-2028)||800|
|Top industries (2018)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2019 wage data and 2018-2028 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2018-2028). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- American Bar Association
- American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, AFL-CIO
- Association of Administrative Law Judges
- International Association of Workforce Professionals
- National Association of Hearing Officials
- National Association of Unemployment Insurance Appeals Professionals
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Judges and hearing officers