Summary Report for:
23-1023.00 - Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates
Arbitrate, advise, adjudicate, or administer justice in a court of law. May sentence defendant in criminal cases according to government statutes or sentencing guidelines. May determine liability of defendant in civil cases. May perform wedding ceremonies.
Sample of reported job titles: Circuit Court Judge, Circuit Judge, County Judge, Court of Appeals Judge, District Court Judge, Judge, Justice of the Peace, Magistrate, Municipal Court Judge, Superior Court Judge
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Read documents on pleadings and motions to ascertain facts and issues.
- Rule on admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony.
- Instruct juries on applicable laws, direct juries to deduce the facts from the evidence presented, and hear their verdicts.
- Award compensation for damages to litigants in civil cases in relation to findings by juries or by the court.
- Monitor proceedings to ensure that all applicable rules and procedures are followed.
- Preside over hearings and listen to allegations made by plaintiffs to determine whether the evidence supports the charges.
- Research legal issues and write opinions on the issues.
- Write decisions on cases.
- Advise attorneys, juries, litigants, and court personnel regarding conduct, issues, and proceedings.
- Interpret and enforce rules of procedure or establish new rules in situations where there are no procedures already established by law.
- Settle disputes between opposing attorneys.
- Impose restrictions upon parties in civil cases until trials can be held.
- Provide information regarding the judicial system or other legal issues through the media and public speeches.
- Rule on custody and access disputes, and enforce court orders regarding custody and support of children.
- Sentence defendants in criminal cases, on conviction by jury, according to applicable government statutes.
- Grant divorces and divide assets between spouses.
- Participate in judicial tribunals to help resolve disputes.
- Conduct preliminary hearings to decide issues such as whether there is reasonable and probable cause to hold defendants in felony cases.
- Supervise other judges, court officers, and the court's administrative staff.
- Data base user interface and query software — Online databases
- Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat
- Electronic mail software — Email software
- Information retrieval or search software — LexisNexis; Thomson Reuters WestLaw
- Instant messaging software
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Legal management software — Courtroom scheduling software
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Video conferencing software — Videoconferencing software
- Word processing software
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Desktop computers
- Digital video disk players or recorders — Digital video players
- Digital voice recorders — Digital audio recorders
- Gavels or sounding blocks — Gavels
- Laser fax machine — Laser facsimile machines
- Laser printers — Computer laser printers
- Microphones — Courtroom microphones
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Personal computers
- Special purpose telephones — Multiline telephone systems
- Tablet computers
- Teleconference equipment — Teleconferencing equipment
- Videoconferencing systems — Videoconferencing equipment
- Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
- Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
Detailed Work Activities
- Make decisions in legal cases.
- Research relevant legal materials to aid decision making.
- Identify implications for cases from legal precedents or other legal information.
- Authorize payments to settle legal disputes.
- Rule on admissibility of legal proceedings.
- Direct courtroom activities or procedures.
- Conduct hearings to investigate legal issues.
- Prepare written decisions for legal proceedings.
- Arbitrate disputes between parties to resolve legal conflicts.
- Supervise activities of other legal personnel.
- Administer oaths to court participants.
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 100% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 99% responded “Very important results.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 96% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 99% responded “Every day.”
- Electronic Mail — 87% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 86% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others — 75% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 76% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Telephone — 75% responded “Every day.”
- Deal With External Customers — 84% responded “Extremely important.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 68% responded “Extremely important.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 74% responded “Every day.”
- Letters and Memos — 65% responded “Every day.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 56% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 45% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 60% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Time Pressure — 38% responded “Every day.”
- Public Speaking — 38% responded “Every day.”
- Consequence of Error — 47% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 44% responded “Very important.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 41% responded “Extremely important.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 39% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Deal With Physically Aggressive People — 41% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Physical Proximity — 41% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 37% responded “Very important.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 30% responded “No responsibility.”
|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
Interest code: ES Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2018)||$64.39 hourly, $133,920 annual|
|Employment (2018)||30,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2018-2028)||Slower than average (2% to 3%)|
|Projected job openings (2018-2028)||1,500|
|Top industries (2018)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2018 wage data and 2018-2028 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2018-2028). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- American Bar Association
- American Inns of Court
- American Judges Association
- National Association of Drug Court Professionals
- National Association of Women Judges
- National Bar Association
- National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
- National Judges Association
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Judges and hearing officers