Summary Report for:
31-9097.00 - Phlebotomists
Draw blood for tests, transfusions, donations, or research. May explain the procedure to patients and assist in the recovery of patients with adverse reactions.
Sample of reported job titles: Lab Liaison Technician, Mobile Examiner, Patient Service Technician (PST), Phlebotomist, Phlebotomy Technician, Registered Phlebotomist
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Dispose of contaminated sharps, in accordance with applicable laws, standards, and policies.
- Organize or clean blood-drawing trays, ensuring that all instruments are sterile and all needles, syringes, or related items are of first-time use.
- Draw blood from veins by vacuum tube, syringe, or butterfly venipuncture methods.
- Match laboratory requisition forms to specimen tubes.
- Dispose of blood or other biohazard fluids or tissue, in accordance with applicable laws, standards, or policies.
- Conduct standards tests, such as blood alcohol, blood culture, oral glucose tolerance, glucose screening, blood smears, or peak and trough drug levels tests.
- Collect specimens at specific time intervals for tests, such as those assessing therapeutic drug levels.
- Process blood or other fluid samples for further analysis by other medical professionals.
- Provide sample analysis results to physicians to assist diagnosis.
- Enter patient, specimen, insurance, or billing information into computer.
- Document route of specimens from collection to laboratory analysis and diagnosis.
- Draw blood from capillaries by dermal puncture, such as heel or finger stick methods.
- Conduct hemoglobin tests to ensure donor iron levels are normal.
- Transport specimens or fluid samples from collection sites to laboratories.
- Collect fluid or tissue samples, using appropriate collection procedures.
- Explain fluid or tissue collection procedures to patients.
- Train other medical personnel in phlebotomy or laboratory techniques.
- Perform saline flushes or dispense anticoagulant drugs, such as Heparin, through intravenous (IV) lines, in accordance with licensing restrictions and under the direction of a medical doctor.
- Administer subcutaneous or intramuscular injects, in accordance with licensing restrictions.
- Draw blood from arteries, using arterial collection techniques.
- Monitor blood or plasma donors during and after procedures to ensure health, safety, and comfort.
- Determine donor suitability, according to interview results, vital signs, and medical history.
- Calibrate or maintain machines, such as those used for plasma collection.
- Serve refreshments to donors to ensure absorption of sugar into their systems.
- Calendar and scheduling software — Scheduling software
- Electronic mail software — Microsoft Outlook
- Medical software — Donor management system software; Electronic medical record EMR software; Medical procedure coding software; MEDITECH Laboratory and Microbiology (see all 8 examples)
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Anatomical human mannequins for medical education or training — Phlebotomy practice arms; Phlebotomy practice blocks; Phlebotomy practice heels
- Arterial blood gas monitors or accessories — Blood gas kits
- Bag tag printer — Mobile barcode printers
- Bar code reader equipment — Barcode scanners
- Benchtop centrifuges — Laboratory centrifuges
- Blood bank refrigerators — Blood specimen refrigerators
- Blood collection needle — Multi-sample blood collection needles; Venipuncture needles
- Blood collection needle holders — Venipuncture needle holders
- Blood collection syringes — Blood drawing syringes
- Blood drawing or phlebotomy chairs or accessories — Phlebotomy chairs
- Butterfly needles — Venipuncture butterfly needles
- Capillary or hematocrit tubes — Capillary tubes; Microcapillary hematocrit tubes
- Clock timers — Digital timers
- Glucose monitors or meters — Blood glucose monitoring equipment
- Intravenous tubing with catheter administration kits — Intravenous IV administration equipment
- Lancets — Blood lancets
- Laser fax machine — Laser facsimile machines
- Medical carts or accessories — Phlebotomy carts
- Medical staff aprons or bibs — Protective aprons
- Medical staff isolation or surgical masks — Medical face masks
- Microcentrifuges — Microhematocrit tubes
- Needle or blade or sharps disposal container or cart — Sharps disposal containers
- Needle protectors — Safety needles
- Non vacuum blood collection tubes or containers — Aliquot tubes; Blood culture bottles; Sterile screw-cap glass tubes; Sterile screw-cap plastic tubes
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Pasteur or transfer pipettes — Transfer pipettes
- Personal computers
- Phlebotomy trays or accessories — Phlebotomy trays; Specimen tube holders; Unopette equipment
- Radiographic locators — Vein finding devices
- Shaking incubators — Blood culture incubators
- Specimen collection or transport bags — Phlebotomy transport bags
- Spill kits — Biohazard spill kits
- Sputum collection apparatus or containers — Sputum cups
- Stool collection containers without media — Occult blood kits
- Tissue culture coated plates or dishes or inserts — Culture plates
- Tourniquets — Venipuncture tourniquets
- Urinalysis analyzers — Urine analysis equipment
- Volumetric pipettes — Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) pipettes
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
Detailed Work Activities
- Dispose of biomedical waste in accordance with standards.
- Clean medical equipment.
- Prepare medical instruments or equipment for use.
- Collect biological specimens from patients.
- Give medications or immunizations.
- Conduct diagnostic tests to determine patient health.
- Maintain medical records.
- Monitor patients to detect health problems.
- Transport biological or other medical materials.
- Maintain medical equipment or instruments.
- Explain technical medical information to patients.
- Teach medical procedures to healthcare personnel.
- Feed patients.
- Contact With Others — 82% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 86% responded “Every day.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 86% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 81% responded “Extremely important.”
- Telephone — 82% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 68% responded “Extremely important.”
- Exposed to Disease or Infections — 77% responded “Every day.”
- Consequence of Error — 57% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 73% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Time Pressure — 64% responded “Every day.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 55% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Deal With External Customers — 64% responded “Extremely important.”
- Electronic Mail — 73% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Standing — 50% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 59% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 50% responded “Extremely important.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 64% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 68% responded “Every day.”
- Physical Proximity — 45% responded “Very close (near touching).”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 45% responded “Very important results.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 41% responded “High responsibility.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 36% responded “Important.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 41% responded “Some freedom.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 36% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 59% responded “Some freedom.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 32% responded “Every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 64% responded “40 hours.”
- Letters and Memos — 36% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 41% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — 36% responded “More than half the time.”
- Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — 32% responded “Every day.”
- Level of Competition — 32% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Deal With Physically Aggressive People — 32% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
|Title||Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.|
|Related Experience||Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include hydroelectric production managers, travel guides, electricians, agricultural technicians, barbers, court reporters, and medical assistants.|
|SVP Range||(6.0 to < 7.0)|
Interest code: CRI Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2020)||$17.46 hourly, $36,320 annual|
|Employment (2019)||132,600 employees|
|Projected growth (2019-2029)||Much faster than average (8% or higher)|
|Projected job openings (2019-2029)||15,800|
|Top industries (2019)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2020 wage data and 2019-2029 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2019-2029). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- American Medical Technologists
- American Society for Clinical Pathology
- American Society of Phlebotomy Technicians
- Center for Phlebotomy Education
- Coordinating Council on the Clinical Laboratory Workforce
- National Center for Competency Testing
- National Healthcareer Association
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Phlebotomists