Summary Report for:
43-9061.00 - Office Clerks, General
Perform duties too varied and diverse to be classified in any specific office clerical occupation, requiring knowledge of office systems and procedures. Clerical duties may be assigned in accordance with the office procedures of individual establishments and may include a combination of answering telephones, bookkeeping, typing or word processing, stenography, office machine operation, and filing.
Sample of reported job titles: Administration Assistant, Administrative Assistant, Clerk, Customer Service Representative, Office Assistant, Office Clerk, Office Coordinator, Office Manager, Receptionist, Secretary
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Operate office machines, such as photocopiers and scanners, facsimile machines, voice mail systems, and personal computers.
- Answer telephones, direct calls, and take messages.
- Maintain and update filing, inventory, mailing, and database systems, either manually or using a computer.
- Communicate with customers, employees, and other individuals to answer questions, disseminate or explain information, take orders, and address complaints.
- Open, sort, and route incoming mail, answer correspondence, and prepare outgoing mail.
- Compile, copy, sort, and file records of office activities, business transactions, and other activities.
- Compute, record, and proofread data and other information, such as records or reports.
- Type, format, proofread, and edit correspondence and other documents, from notes or dictating machines, using computers or typewriters.
- Complete work schedules, manage calendars, and arrange appointments.
- Review files, records, and other documents to obtain information to respond to requests.
- Deliver messages and run errands.
- Inventory and order materials, supplies, and services.
- Troubleshoot problems involving office equipment, such as computer hardware and software.
- Collect, count, and disburse money, do basic bookkeeping, and complete banking transactions.
- Complete and mail bills, contracts, policies, invoices, or checks.
- Process and prepare documents, such as business or government forms and expense reports.
- Monitor and direct the work of lower-level clerks.
- Make travel arrangements for office personnel.
- Train other staff members to perform work activities, such as using computer applications.
- Prepare meeting agendas, attend meetings, and record and transcribe minutes.
- Count, weigh, measure, or organize materials.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Desktop calculator — 10-key calculators
- Desktop computers
- Dictation machines — Dictation equipment
- Digital duplicators — Digital duplicating machines
- Franking or postage machines — Postage machines
- Laser fax machine — Laser facsimile machines
- Laser printers — Computer laser printers
- Letter folders — Letter folding machines
- Mainframe console or dumb terminals — Computer terminals
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Personal computers
- Photocopiers — Photocopying equipment
- Premise branch exchange PBX systems — Switchboards
- Scanners — Data input scanners
- Special purpose telephones — Multi-line telephone systems
- Typewriters — Electric typewriters
- Voice mail systems
Technology used in this occupation:
- Accounting software — Billing software; Bookkeeping software; Intuit QuickBooks ; Sage 50 Accounting
- Calendar and scheduling software — Appointment scheduling software
- Customer relationship management CRM software — Blackbaud The Raiser's Edge ; Salesforce.com Salesforce CRM
- Data base user interface and query software — Data entry software ; Microsoft Access ; Propertyware; St. Paul Travelers e-CARMA (see all 9 examples)
- Desktop publishing software — Adobe Systems Adobe InDesign ; Microsoft Publisher
- Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat ; Filing system software; Records management software; Transcription system software
- Electronic mail software — IBM Notes ; Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise application integration software — Electronic Data Interchange EDI systems
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — Oracle JD Edwards EnterpriseOne ; Oracle PeopleSoft ; SAP
- Information retrieval or search software — LexisNexis
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Medical software — Medical condition coding software ; Medical procedure coding software ; MEDITECH software
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Operating system software — Microsoft Windows
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Project management software — Mavenlink
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Word processing software — Google Docs; Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
Detailed Work Activities
- Operate office equipment.
- Answer telephones to direct calls or provide information.
- Maintain inventory records.
- Confer with coworkers to coordinate work activities.
- Respond to customer problems or complaints.
- Collect deposits, payments or fees.
- Execute sales or other financial transactions.
- Prepare cash for deposit or disbursement.
- Send information, materials or documentation.
- Distribute incoming mail.
- Sort mail.
- Compile data or documentation.
- File documents or records.
- Prepare documentation for contracts, transactions, or regulatory compliance.
- Proofread documents, records, or other files to ensure accuracy.
- Check data for recording errors.
- Prepare employee work schedules.
- Schedule appointments.
- Supervise clerical or administrative personnel.
- Search files, databases or reference materials to obtain needed information.
- Make travel, accommodations, or entertainment arrangements for others.
- Monitor inventories of products or materials.
- Provide information to coworkers.
- Train personnel.
- Record information from meetings or other formal proceedings.
- Transcribe spoken or written information.
- Maintain office equipment in proper operating condition.
- Electronic Mail — 89% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 92% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others — 86% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 64% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 59% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 55% responded “Extremely important.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 65% responded “Extremely important.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 73% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 53% responded “Very important.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 79% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 45% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Time Pressure — 47% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 26% responded “Important.”
- Letters and Memos — 52% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 52% responded “40 hours.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 55% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Physical Proximity — 48% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 40% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 44% responded “Moderate results.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 46% responded “More than half the time.”
- Consequence of Error — 32% responded “Fairly serious.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 45% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Deal With External Customers — 25% responded “Extremely important.”
|Title||Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed|
|Education||These occupations usually require a high school diploma.|
|Related Experience||Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include orderlies, forest firefighters, customer service representatives, security guards, upholsterers, and tellers.|
|SVP Range||(4.0 to < 6.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|52||High school diploma or equivalent|
|7||Some college, no degree|
Interest code: CER
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2015)||$14.22 hourly, $29,580 annual|
|Employment (2014)||3,063,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2014-2024)||Slower than average (2% to 4%)|
|Projected job openings (2014-2024)||756,200|
|Top industries (2014)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 wage data and 2014-2024 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- General office clerks . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition.