Summary Report for:
47-2011.00 - Boilermakers
Construct, assemble, maintain, and repair stationary steam boilers and boiler house auxiliaries. Align structures or plate sections to assemble boiler frame tanks or vats, following blueprints. Work involves use of hand and power tools, plumb bobs, levels, wedges, dogs, or turnbuckles. Assist in testing assembled vessels. Direct cleaning of boilers and boiler furnaces. Inspect and repair boiler fittings, such as safety valves, regulators, automatic-control mechanisms, water columns, and auxiliary machines.
Sample of reported job titles: Boiler Maker, Boiler Mechanic, Boiler Repairman, Boiler Service Technician, Boiler Technician, Boilermaker, Boilermaker Mechanic, Boilermaker Pipe Fitter, Boilermaker Welder, Service Technician
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Attach rigging and signal crane or hoist operators to lift heavy frame and plate sections or other parts into place.
- Study blueprints to determine locations, relationships, or dimensions of parts.
- Repair or replace defective pressure vessel parts, such as safety valves or regulators, using torches, jacks, caulking hammers, power saws, threading dies, welding equipment, or metalworking machinery.
- Locate and mark reference points for columns or plates on boiler foundations, following blueprints and using straightedges, squares, transits, or measuring instruments.
- Bolt or arc weld pressure vessel structures and parts together, using wrenches or welding equipment.
- Position, align, and secure structural parts or related assemblies to boiler frames, tanks, or vats of pressure vessels, following blueprints.
- Install manholes, handholes, taps, tubes, valves, gauges, or feedwater connections in drums of water tube boilers, using hand tools.
- Shape or fabricate parts, such as stacks, uptakes, or chutes, to adapt pressure vessels, heat exchangers, or piping to premises, using heavy-metalworking machines such as brakes, rolls, or drill presses.
- Assemble large vessels in an on-site fabrication shop prior to installation to ensure proper fit.
- Lay out plate, sheet steel, or other heavy metal and locate and mark bending and cutting lines, using protractors, compasses, and drawing instruments or templates.
- Examine boilers, pressure vessels, tanks, or vats to locate defects, such as leaks, weak spots, or defective sections, so that they can be repaired.
- Shape seams, joints, or irregular edges of pressure vessel sections or structural parts to attain specified fit of parts, using cutting torches, hammers, files, or metalworking machines.
- Inspect assembled vessels or individual components, such as tubes, fittings, valves, controls, or auxiliary mechanisms, to locate any defects.
- Straighten or reshape bent pressure vessel plates or structure parts, using hammers, jacks, or torches.
- Install refractory bricks or other heat-resistant materials in fireboxes of pressure vessels.
- Clean pressure vessel equipment, using scrapers, wire brushes, and cleaning solvents.
- Bell, bead with power hammers, or weld pressure vessel tube ends to ensure leakproof joints.
- Computer aided design CAD software — Autodesk AutoCAD
- Computer based training software — Health and safety training software
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — SAP software
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Operating system software — Microsoft Windows
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Adjustable wrenches — Adjustable crescent wrenches
- Air compressors
- Air manifolds
- Air samplers or collectors — Atmospheric testing equipment
- Ball peen hammer — Ball peen hammers
- Below the hook device — Beam clamps; Spreader beams
- Bench vises
- Bevels — Sliding t-bevels
- Blocks or pulleys — Block and tackle equipment; Chain pulleys
- Blow torch — Acetylene torches; Cutting torches; Oxygen lances; Pre-heating torches
- Bolt cutters
- Box end wrenches
- C clamps — Ground clamps
- Calipers — Vernier calipers
- Caulking guns
- Chalk lines
- Claw hammer — Claw hammers
- Cold chisels — Metal-cutting chisels; Serrating tools; Splitting chisels
- Combination wrenches
- Compasses — Dividers; Trammel points
- Demolition hammers — Chipping hammers
- Desktop computers
- Drill gauge — Drill point gauges
- Drill press or radial drill — Drill presses; Punch presses
- Drive pins — Bull pins
- Ear plugs
- Electrode holder — Electrode holders
- End cut pliers — End cutting pliers; Side cutting pliers
- Fans — Ventilation fans
- Fire extinguishers
- Fire retardant apparel — Fire retardant coveralls
- Flashback arrestor — Flashback arrestors
- Gas welding or brazing or cutting apparatus — Electrode ovens; Welding adaptors
- Girder trolleys — Beam trolleys
- Goggles — Safety goggles
- Hacksaw — Hacksaws
- Hammers — Lead hammers; Non-sparking hammers; Soft face hammers
- Hand clamps — Bar clamps
- Hand reamer — Tube wall reducing tools
- Hand sprayers — Catalyst dispensers
- Hard hats
- Hex keys — Allen wrenches
- Hoists — Chain falls; Chain hoists; Pneumatic hoists; Utility hoists (see all 5 examples)
- Hydraulic truck cranes — Hydraulic boom trucks
- Inspection mirror — Inspection mirrors
- Jacks — Hydraulic jacks; Screw jacks; Steamboat ratchet jacks
- Laboratory heaters — Heat lamps
- Lasers — Digital lasers
- Level sensors or transmitters — Transit levels
- Levels — Digital levels; Engineers' levels; Laser levels; Spirit levels (see all 5 examples)
- Lighters — Friction lighters
- Loading equipment — Plate clamps; Swivel hoist rings; Wire rope pullers
- Locking pliers — Channel lock pliers; Vise grip pliers
- Longnose pliers
- Manlift or personnel lift — Swing stages
- Manual press brake — Brakes
- Masks or accessories — Dust masks
- Metal inert gas welding machine — Metal inert gas MIG welders
- Metal markers or holders — Contour markers
- Mill saw file — Single-cut mill saw files
- Milling machines — Tube milling machines
- Multi gas monitors — Atmospheric monitoring devices
- Open end wrenches
- Personal computers
- Pipe or tube cutter — Pipe and tubing cutters
- Pipe vises
- Pipe wrenches — Adjustable pipe wrenches
- Plasma arc welding machine — Plasma arc welding equipment
- Platform lift — Staging equipment
- Plumb bobs
- Pneumatic drill — Pneumatic drills
- Pneumatic grinders — Air grinders; Beveling machines
- Pneumatic hammer — Air hammers
- Pneumatic impact wrenches
- Pneumatic sanding machines — Air scalers; Sandblasters
- Power buffers — Buffing tools
- Power flaring tool — Flaring tools
- Power grinders
- Power saws — Circular saws; Cutoff saws; Jig saws; Reciprocating saws
- Pressure indicators — Hydrostatic testers; Needle pressure gauges
- Protective coveralls — Leather protective clothing
- Protective gloves
- Pry bars
- Pullers — Hydraulic stub pullers
- Punches or nail sets or drifts — Blacksmiths' punches; Center punches; Pin punches; Tube drifts (see all 5 examples)
- Putty knives
- Resin guns — Resin spray guns
- Respiration air supplying self contained breathing apparatus or accessories — Self-contained breathing apparatus
- Respirators — Full-face respirators; Half-face respirators; Respiratory protection equipment
- Safety glasses — Clear lenses; Filtered lenses
- Safety harnesses or belts — Full body harnesses
- Saws — Hand saws
- Scales — Scale rules
- Scissor lift or lift table — Scissor lifts
- Shackle — Shackles
- Shielded metal arc welding or stick welding machine — Air carbon arc cutting equipment; Shielded arc welding tools
- Single gas monitors — Carbon dioxide CO2 meters; Oxygen concentration meters
- Sledge hammer — Sledgehammers
- Slip or groove joint pliers — Slip joint pliers
- Socket sets — Socket wrench sets
- Specialty wrenches — Chain wrenches; Hammer wrenches; Spud wrenches
- Spot welding machine — Portable welding machines
- Squares — Combination squares; Framing squares
- Straight edges — Straightedges
- Strap wrenches
- Tape measures — Measuring tapes
- Telescoping boom lift — Telescoping lifts
- Telescoping gauge — Telescoping gauges
- Temperature indicating stick — Temperature sticks
- Threading taps — Tap sets
- Tinners snips — Metal-cutting snips
- Torque wrenches
- Tracer or duplicating or contouring lathe — Bench lathes
- Tube end finisher — Tube end facers
- Tube wrenches — Tube pullers
- Tungsten inert gas welding machine — Tungsten inert gas TIG welding equipment
- Two way radios
- Utility knives
- Welding electrode — Stick electrodes
- Welding generator — Welding distribution panels
- Welding masks — Welding shields
- Welding or brazing tip cleaner file — Welding tip cleaning files
- Welding or cutting tip — Welding tips
- Welding regulator oxygen — Welding oxygen regulators
- Welding robots — Computer-controlled welding equipment
- Wire brushes
- Workshop cranes — Hydraulic cranes
- X ray radiography examination equipment — X ray inspection equipment
- Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
- Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
- Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
- Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
- Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
- Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
Detailed Work Activities
- Operate cranes, hoists, or other moving or lifting equipment.
- Signal equipment operators to indicate proper equipment positioning.
- Review blueprints or specifications to determine work requirements.
- Maintain mechanical equipment.
- Mark reference points on construction materials.
- Measure materials or objects for installation or assembly.
- Weld metal components.
- Install metal structural components.
- Position structural components.
- Fabricate parts or components.
- Assemble products or production equipment.
- Install gauges or controls.
- Inspect industrial or commercial equipment to ensure proper operation.
- Install masonry materials.
- Clean equipment or facilities.
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 88% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 77% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 70% responded “Every day.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 69% responded “Every day.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Standing — 54% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 48% responded “Very important.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 54% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 76% responded “Every day.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 44% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 45% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 49% responded “Extremely important.”
- Contact With Others — 62% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — 65% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 58% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 27% responded “Very important results.”
- Time Pressure — 77% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — 40% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Exposed to High Places — 22% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 59% responded “More than half the time.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 37% responded “Limited freedom.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 47% responded “Every day.”
- Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — 50% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 37% responded “High responsibility.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Physical Proximity — 41% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 27% responded “Important.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 66% responded “40 hours.”
- Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — 39% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 30% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Level of Competition — 65% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Telephone — 54% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — 37% responded “More than half the time.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 49% responded “Very important.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 32% responded “More than half the time.”
- Outdoors, Under Cover — 25% responded “Every day.”
- Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — 33% responded “Important.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 30% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Letters and Memos — 40% responded “Every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.|
|Related Experience||Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include hydroelectric production managers, travel guides, electricians, agricultural technicians, barbers, court reporters, and medical assistants.|
|SVP Range||(6.0 to < 7.0)|
Interest code: RC Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2018)||$29.88 hourly, $62,150 annual|
|Employment (2018)||15,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2018-2028)||Average (4% to 6%)|
|Projected job openings (2018-2028)||1,600|
|Top industries (2018)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2018 wage data and 2018-2028 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2018-2028). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.