Summary Report for:
49-9051.00 - Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers
Install or repair cables or wires used in electrical power or distribution systems. May erect poles and light or heavy duty transmission towers.
Sample of reported job titles: A Class Lineman, Apprentice Lineman Third Step, Class A Lineman, Electric Lineman, Electrical Lineman (Power), Electrical Lineworker, Journeyman Lineman, Lineman, Lineworker, Power Lineman
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Adhere to safety practices and procedures, such as checking equipment regularly and erecting barriers around work areas.
- Test conductors, according to electrical diagrams and specifications, to identify corresponding conductors and to prevent incorrect connections.
- Open switches or attach grounding devices to remove electrical hazards from disturbed or fallen lines or to facilitate repairs.
- Climb poles or use truck-mounted buckets to access equipment.
- Drive vehicles equipped with tools and materials to job sites.
- Identify defective sectionalizing devices, circuit breakers, fuses, voltage regulators, transformers, switches, relays, or wiring, using wiring diagrams and electrical-testing instruments.
- Install, maintain, and repair electrical distribution and transmission systems, including conduits, cables, wires, and related equipment, such as transformers, circuit breakers, and switches.
- Dig holes, using augers, and set poles, using cranes and power equipment.
- Place insulating or fireproofing materials over conductors and joints.
- Install watt-hour meters and connect service drops between power lines and consumers' facilities.
- Travel in trucks, helicopters, and airplanes to inspect lines for freedom from obstruction and adequacy of insulation.
- Splice or solder cables together or to overhead transmission lines, customer service lines, or street light lines, using hand tools, epoxies, or specialized equipment.
- String wire conductors and cables between poles, towers, trenches, pylons, and buildings, setting lines in place and using winches to adjust tension.
- Inspect and test power lines and auxiliary equipment to locate and identify problems, using reading and testing instruments.
- Attach cross-arms, insulators, and auxiliary equipment to poles prior to installing them.
- Coordinate work assignment preparation and completion with other workers.
- Replace or straighten damaged poles.
- Trim trees that could be hazardous to the functioning of cables or wires.
- Lay underground cable directly in trenches, or string it through conduit running through the trenches.
- Clean, tin, and splice corresponding conductors by twisting ends together or by joining ends with metal clamps and soldering connections.
- Pull up cable by hand from large reels mounted on trucks.
- Cut and peel lead sheathing and insulation from defective or newly installed cables and conduits prior to splicing.
- Cut trenches for laying underground cables, using trenchers and cable plows.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Air compressors
- All terrain vehicles tracked or wheeled — All terrain vehicles ATV
- Articulating boom lift — Bucket trucks
- Bench vises
- Blocks or pulleys — Block and tackle equipment
- Bolt cutters
- Boring machines — Power borers
- Cable clamp and staple — Jumper clamps
- Cable reels — Reel jacks; Tension machines
- Circuit breakers — Load break tools
- Circuit tester — Continuity meters
- Circuit tracers — Line tracers
- Conduit benders — Cable benders; Hand benders; Hydraulic benders; Power benders
- Conventional truck cranes — Truck-mounted cranes
- Detection apparatus for non metallic objects — Non-metallic NM cable locators
- Drill bit set — Drill bit sets
- Dump trucks
- Dynamometers — Digital dynamometers
- Ear plugs
- Electrical insulators — Arc suppression blankets
- Electrical power sensors — Charge-actuated spiking tools
- Electrical resistance or conductance sensors — Ground testers
- Extension pole — Pike poles
- Facial shields — Face shields
- Fiber optic test sources — Optical power meters
- Fire blankets
- Fire extinguishers
- Fire retardant apparel — Fire retardant clothing
- Fish tape — Fish tapes
- Flatbed trailers — Power reel trailers
- Fuse pullers
- Gas detectors — Toxic gas detectors
- Gas generators — Portable generators
- Gin pole and accessories — Gin poles
- Goggles — Safety goggles
- Grab hooks — Climbing hooks
- Grounding devices or assemblies — Running grounds; Static discharge sticks
- Grounding hardware — Grounding devices
- Hacksaw — Hacksaws
- Hand drill bit for wood — Auger bits
- Hand reamer — Hand reamers
- Hard hats
- Hazardous material protective apparel — Conductive clothing
- Heat tracing equipment — Infrared guns
- Hex keys — Allen wrenches
- Hoists — Capstan hoists; Overhead hoists
- Hydraulic press frames — Hydraulic presses
- Hydraulic shears — Hydraulic cutters
- Jacks — Chain jacks; Pole jacks
- Laser printers
- Lifelines or lifeline equipment — Lifelines
- Lifting hooks — Cant hooks; Peaveys
- Lifts — Hand lines
- Light trucks or sport utility vehicles — Light pickup trucks
- Linemans pliers — Insulated pliers
- Lug crimping tool dies — Compression tools
- Mask or respirators filters or accessories — Breathing protection equipment
- Measuring wheels for distance — Measuring wheels
- Mill saw file — Single-cut mill saw files
- Multimeters — Clamp-on multimeters
- Needlenose pliers
- Nut drivers
- Pad or keyhole saw — Keyhole saws
- Personal computers
- Phasemeters — Phase rotation meters
- Pick or place robots — Robotic arms
- Pipe wrenches
- Platform lift — Material handling aerial devices
- Plumb bobs
- Pneumatic drill — Pneumatic drills
- Pneumatic hammer — Air hammers; Ground rod drivers; Jackhammers
- Potentiometers — Potential testing meters
- Power chippers
- Power drills — Concrete drills; Gas drills; Hammer drills; Hydraulic drills (see all 5 examples)
- Power saws — Chain saws; Saber saws
- Power screwguns — Electric screw guns
- Pressure or steam cleaners — Power washers
- Protective gloves — Asbestos gloves; Insulated gloves; Leather gloves
- Pry bars — Crowbars
- Pullers — Comealongs; Elbow pullers
- Punches or nail sets or drifts — Knockout punches; Punches
- Recreational motorboats — Boats
- Reflectometers — Time domain reflectometers
- Safety boots
- Safety harnesses or belts — Bashlin belts; Fall arrest harnesses; Pole belts
- Safety shoes — Climbing spikes
- Saws — Buck saws; Hand saws
- Skid steer loaders
- Sledge hammer — Sledgehammers
- Slings — Lifting slings
- Slip or groove joint pliers — Slip joint pliers
- Snowmobiles or snow scooter — Snowmobiles
- Socket sets — Socket wrench sets
- Soldering iron — Soldering irons
- Spades — Digging spades
- Specialty wrenches — Insulated wrenches
- Spot welding machine — Welding tools
- Strap wrenches — Nylon strap wrenches
- Stripping tools — Cable strippers
- Tampers — Hydraulic tampers
- Telescoping boom lift — Radial boom derrick trucks; Telescoping boom trucks
- Tongs — Wire tongs
- Torque wrenches
- Traffic signals — Arrow boards
- Trenching machines — Trenchers
- Two way radios
- Utility knives — Insulated knives; Insulated skinning knives
- Voltage or current meters — Current leakage meters; Digital recording amp meters; Digital voltmeters DVM; Insulator testers
- Water pumps
- Wheel bulldozers — Wheeled bulldozers
- Wheel chocks
- Winches — Wire tuggers
- Wire cutters
- Wire lug crimping tool — Wire crimpers
- Wire or cable cutter — Cable cutters; Insulated cable cutters; Ratchet cutters
- Wood chisels
Technology used in this occupation:
- Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
- Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
- Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
- Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
- Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
- Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
- Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
Detailed Work Activities
- Monitor work areas or procedures to ensure compliance with safety procedures.
- Test electrical circuits or components for proper functioning.
- Control power supply connections.
- Climb equipment or structures to access work areas.
- Inspect electrical or electronic systems for defects.
- Drive trucks or other vehicles to or at work sites.
- Assemble electrical components, subsystems, or systems.
- Repair electrical circuits or wiring.
- Connect electrical components or equipment.
- Dig holes or trenches.
- Install insulation in equipment or structures.
- Install metering equipment.
- Operate cranes, hoists, or other moving or lifting equipment.
- Travel to work sites to perform installation, repair or maintenance work.
- Solder parts or connections between parts.
- Assemble mechanical components or machine parts.
- Run wiring to connect equipment.
- Test electrical equipment or systems to ensure proper functioning.
- Confer with coworkers to coordinate work activities.
- Align equipment or machinery.
- Cut materials according to specifications or needs.
- Lay cables to connect equipment.
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 99% responded “Every day.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 89% responded “Every day.”
- Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 79% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 77% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 81% responded “Every day.”
- Exposed to High Places — 81% responded “Every day.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable
- Telephone — 57% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 55% responded “Extremely important.”
- Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — 68% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others — 74% responded “Contact with others most of the time.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 22% responded “Limited freedom.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Equipment
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 55% responded “Important results.”
- In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — 47% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 41% responded “Very important.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 49% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 56% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 72% responded “High responsibility.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 19% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 42% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 42% responded “Important.”
- Physical Proximity — 35% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 43% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — 66% responded “Every day.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 52% responded “Limited freedom.”
- Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — 39% responded “Every day.”
- Time Pressure — 34% responded “Every day.”
- Deal With External Customers — 40% responded “Very important.”
- Consequence of Error — 46% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Spend Time Standing — 42% responded “About half the time.”
- Level of Competition — 46% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 42% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 33% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
|Title||Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.|
|Related Experience||Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include food service managers, travel guides, electricians, agricultural technicians, barbers, nannies, and medical assistants.|
|SVP Range||(6.0 to < 7.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|Not available||Post-secondary certificate|
|Not available||High school diploma or equivalent|
|Not available||Less than high school diploma|
Interest code: RIC
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2015)||$31.95 hourly, $66,450 annual|
|Employment (2014)||119,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2014-2024)||Faster than average (9% to 13%)|
|Projected job openings (2014-2024)||60,300|
|Top industries (2014)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 wage data and 2014-2024 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Line installers and repairers . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition.