Summary Report for:
11-9013.02 - Farm and Ranch Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the management or operation of farms, ranches, greenhouses, aquacultural operations, nurseries, timber tracts, or other agricultural establishments. May hire, train, or supervise farm workers or contract for services to carry out the day-to-day activities of the managed operation. May engage in or supervise planting, cultivating, harvesting, financial, or marketing activities.
Sample of reported job titles: Accredited Farm Manager (AFM), Cash Crop Farmer, Dairy Farmer, Farm Manager, Farm Operator, Farmer, Grain Farmer, Ranch Manager, Rancher, Sow Farm Manager
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Inspect orchards or fields to determine crop maturity or condition or to detect disease or insect infestation.
- Direct crop production operations, such as planning, tilling, planting, fertilizing, cultivating, spraying, or harvesting.
- Monitor activities such as irrigation, chemical application, harvesting, milking, breeding, or grading to ensure adherence to safety regulations or standards.
- Plan crop activities based on factors such as crop maturity or weather conditions.
- Maintain financial, operational, production, or employment records for farms or ranches.
- Direct the breeding or raising of stock, such as cattle, poultry, or honeybees, using recognized breeding practices to ensure stock improvement.
- Obtain financing necessary for purchases of machinery, land, supplies, or livestock.
- Inspect farm or ranch equipment to ensure proper functioning.
- Negotiate with buyers for the sale, storage, or shipment of crops or livestock.
- Analyze soil to determine types or quantities of fertilizer required for maximum crop production.
- Evaluate marketing or sales alternatives for farm or ranch products.
- Prepare budgets or financial reports for farm or ranch operations.
- Determine types or quantities of crops or livestock to be raised, according to factors such as market conditions, federal programs or incentives, or soil conditions.
- Demonstrate or explain working techniques, practices, or safety regulations to farm or ranch workers.
- Hire, train, or supervise workers engaged in planting, cultivating, irrigating, harvesting, or marketing crops, or in raising livestock.
- Select or purchase machinery, equipment, livestock, or supplies, such as seed, feed, fertilizer, or chemicals.
- Analyze market conditions to determine acreage allocations.
- Inspect farm or ranch structures, such as buildings, fences, or roads, ordering repair or maintenance activities, as needed.
- Supervise the construction of farm or ranch structures, such as buildings, fences, drainage systems, wells, or roads.
- Operate or oversee the operations of dairy farms that produce bulk milk.
- Plan and direct development or production of hardier or higher-yield hybrid plant varieties.
- Buy or sell futures contracts or price farm products in advance of future sales to minimize risk or maximize profits.
- Monitor and adjust irrigation systems to distribute water according to crop needs and to avoid wasting water.
- Monitor pasture or grazing land use to ensure that livestock are properly fed or that conservation methods, such as rotational grazing, are used.
- Direct livestock or crop waste recycling operations.
- Replace chemical insecticides with environmentally friendly practices, such as adding pest-repelling plants to fields.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Adjustable widemouth pliers
- Agricultural tractors — Farm tractors
- Air dryers — Grain dryers
- Animal husbandry equipment — Animal feeders; Artificial insemination kits
- Belt conveyors — Belt conveyor systems
- Cargo trucks — Hay trucks
- Claw hammer — Claw hammers
- Combine harvesters — Grain combines
- Cultivators — Field cultivators
- Desktop computers
- Dump trucks
- Egg inspection or collecting equipment — Egg gathering equipment
- Fertilizer spreaders or distributors — Manure spreaders
- Floor or platform scales — Grain scales
- Global positioning system GPS receiver — Global positioning system GPS receivers
- Grease guns
- Harvesters — Corn pickers
- Haymaking machinery — Hay balers; Hay mowing machines
- Hoes — Garden hoes
- Incubators or brooders for poultry — Poultry incubators
- Irrigation overheads — Field watering systems
- Ladders — Extension ladders
- Lawnmowers — Lawn mowers
- Light trucks or sport utility vehicles — Farm trucks; Four wheel drive 4WD trucks
- Livestock identification equipment — Branding equipment
- Livestock trailers — Animal transportation trailers
- Milking machines — Milking equipment
- Mowers — Brush mowers; Mowing equipment
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Oil can — Oil dispensing cans
- Personal computers
- Portable data input terminals — Handheld computers
- Power saws — Chain saws; Circular saws
- Seed drills — Grain drills
- Shovels — Gardening shovels
- Snow blowers
- Snowplow attachments
- Spot welding machine — Portable welding equipment
- Sprayers — Spray attachments
- Tablet computers
- Veterinary castration instruments — Livestock castration equipment
- Veterinary injection or suction units or accessories — Animal blood collection syringes; Animal vaccination syringes
- Weeders — Weedeaters
Technology used in this occupation:
- Accounting software — AgData Blue Skies Accounting; Datatech The Farmer's Office; Specialized Data Systems Ultra Farm; Vertical Solutions Easy-Farm Accounting (see all 6 examples)
- Analytical or scientific software — MapShots EASi Suite; SST Development Group SSToolbox; Sunrise Software CropSave
- Data base user interface and query software — Ag Leader Technology SMS Advanced; Cattlesoft CattleMax; TapLogic FarmLogic; Trimble Farm Works software (see all 18 examples)
- Electronic mail software — Email software; Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — i.Agri LandMark Farm; International Response Technologies CowChip - Ranch House; Midwest MicroSystems Cow Sense; SAP software (see all 12 examples)
- Industrial control software — AGCO Advanced Technology Solutions Fieldstar; ZedX AgFleet
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Map creation software — DIVA-GIS; ESRI ArcPad; MapInfo software; TatukGIS Editor (see all 9 examples)
- Mobile location based services software — Global positioning system GPS software
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Time accounting software — Countryside Data Ag Payroll; Payroll software
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
- Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
- Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
- Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
- Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
Detailed Work Activities
- Manage agricultural or forestry operations.
- Evaluate quality of materials or products.
- Monitor organizational compliance with regulations.
- Maintain operational records.
- Maintain personnel records.
- Inspect condition or functioning of facilities or equipment.
- Purchase materials, equipment, or other resources.
- Negotiate contracts for transportation, distribution, or logistics services.
- Negotiate sales or lease agreements for products or services.
- Monitor facilities or operational systems.
- Monitor resources.
- Perform manual service or maintenance tasks.
- Analyze data to determine project feasibility.
- Prepare financial documents, reports, or budgets.
- Prepare operational budgets.
- Conduct employee training programs.
- Train employees on environmental awareness, conservation, or safety topics.
- Hire personnel.
- Supervise employees.
- Analyze data to inform operational decisions or activities.
- Direct facility maintenance or repair activities.
- Perform manual agricultural, aquacultural, or horticultural tasks.
- Manage construction activities.
- Implement organizational process or policy changes.
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 99% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 97% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 92% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 82% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions
- In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — 75% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 64% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 65% responded “Important results.”
- In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — 76% responded “Every day.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 40% responded “Very important.”
- Contact With Others — 30% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 38% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 36% responded “Extremely important.”
- Outdoors, Under Cover — 23% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — 18% responded “Never.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 72% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Time Pressure — 36% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making
- Consequence of Error
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 34% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 27% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets
- Electronic Mail — 38% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 34% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 19% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 17% responded “Never.”
- Deal With External Customers — 22% responded “Fairly important.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — 23% responded “Every day.”
- Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — 34% responded “Fairly important.”
- Physical Proximity
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 38% responded “About half the time.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 23% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.|
|Related Experience||A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.|
|Job Zone Examples||Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.|
|SVP Range||(7.0 to < 8.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|Not available||Bachelor's degree|
|Not available||High school diploma or equivalent|
|Not available||Post-secondary certificate|
This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:
Interest code: ERC
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wages data collected from Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers.
Employment data collected from Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers.
Industry data collected from Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers.
|Median wages (2015)||$30.85 hourly, $64,170 annual|
|Employment (2014)||930,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2014-2024)||Decline (-2% or lower)|
|Projected job openings (2014-2024)||158,400|
|Top industries (2014)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 wage data and 2014-2024 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition.