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Details Report for:
25-1112.00 - Law Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in law. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

Sample of reported job titles: Law Professor, Professor, Professor of Law, Associate Professor, Clinical Law Professor, Legal Writing Professor, Adjunct Professor of Law, Instructor, Assistant Professor, Faculty Member

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
91   Core Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
91   Core Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
91   Core Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as civil procedure, contracts, and torts.
86   Core Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, papers, and oral presentations.
85   Core Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
83   Core Prepare course materials such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
82   Core Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
82   Core Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
78   Core Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
72   Core Select and obtain materials and supplies such as textbooks.
69   Core Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
65   Core Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
63   Core Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
62   Core Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
61   Core Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
58   Core Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
55   Core Participate in campus and community events.
55   Core Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
82   Supplemental Assign cases for students to hear and try.
61   Supplemental Perform administrative duties such as serving as department head.
50   Supplemental Act as advisers to student organizations.
45   Supplemental Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
38   Supplemental Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Microphone stand — Microphone podiums
Microphones — Handheld microphones; Wireless microphones
Multimedia projectors — Computer projectors; Multimedia projection equipment
Photocopiers — Photocopying equipment
Portable data input terminals — Interactive whiteboard controllers; Student response systems
Projection screens or displays — Projector screens
Scanners — Computer data input scanners
Televisions — Liquid crystal display LCD televisions; Television monitors
Videoconferencing systems — Videoconferencing equipment
Web cameras — Webcams

Technology used in this occupation:

Computer based training software — Blackboard Learn; Learning management system LMS software; Panopto software; Piazza software (see all 9 examples)
Data base user interface and query software — Data entry software; LexisNexis CaseMap
Document management software — CT Summation iBlaze; LexisNexis HotDocs
Electronic mail software — Email software; Microsoft Outlook
Graphics or photo imaging software — ACD Systems Canvas
Information retrieval or search software — DOC Cop *; iParadigms Turnitin; LexisNexis software; Thomson West Westlaw software
Legal management software — Collateral Consequences Calculator *; Thomson Reuters WestlawNext Litigator
Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
Word processing software — Collaborative editing software; Google Docs *; Microsoft Word

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

See all 45 T2 categories

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
100   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
97   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
97   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
58   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
53   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
43   History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
37   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
35   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
35   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
33   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
31   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
31   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
29   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
23   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
19   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
17   Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
17   Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
16   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
15   Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
15   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
13   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
11   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
  Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
  Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
  Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
  Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
  Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
  Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
 Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
 Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
 Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
 Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
88   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
85   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
78   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
78   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
78   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
75   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
75   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
75   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
63   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
63   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
60   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
53   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
53   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
50   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
50   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
50   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
50   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
50   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
47   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
44   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
28   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
25   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
19   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
19   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
13   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
13   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
10   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
10   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
  Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
  Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
  Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
  Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
  Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
 Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
94   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
85   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
78   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
78   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
75   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
75   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
75   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
72   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
63   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
60   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
53   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
50   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
50   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
50   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
44   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
44   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
35   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
35   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
31   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
28   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
25   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
25   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
25   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
25   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
22   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
22   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
19   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
16   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
10   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
 Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
 Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
 Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
 Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
 Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
 Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
 Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
 Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
 Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
 Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
 Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
 Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
 Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
 Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
 Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
 Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
99   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
  • Guide class discussions.
  • Teach social science courses at the college level.
94   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
  • Attend training sessions or professional meetings to develop or maintain professional knowledge.
  • Research topics in area of expertise.
  • Stay informed about current developments in field of specialization.
93   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
92   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
85   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
83   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
79   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
75   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Select educational materials or equipment.
75   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Develop instructional objectives.
  • Plan experiential learning activities.
72   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
72   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
  • Plan community programs or activities for the general public.
68   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
67   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
66   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
64   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
61   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
61   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
  • Administer tests to assess educational needs or progress.
  • Evaluate effectiveness of educational programs.
  • Evaluate student work.
  • Prepare tests.
56   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
  • Compile specialized bibliographies or lists of materials.
54   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
54   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
53   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
52   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
49   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
  • Promote educational institutions or programs.
46   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Develop instructional materials.
  • Maintain student records.
  • Write articles, books or other original materials in area of expertise.
  • Write grant proposals.
45   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
45   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
  • Perform student enrollment or registration activities.
43   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
43   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
  • Advise educators on curricula, instructional methods, or policies.
  • Advise students on academic or career matters.
39   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Direct department activities.
  • Serve on institutional or departmental committees.
  • Supervise student research or internship work.
38   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
35   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
28   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
20   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
15   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
  • Order instructional or library materials or equipment.
11   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
  Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
  Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
  Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
  Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
  Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
  Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Work Context
Percentage of Top Responses
Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?


91     A lot of freedom
Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?


86     Every day
14     Once a week or more but not every day
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?


85     Every day
13     Once a week or more but not every day
Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?


67     A lot of freedom
33     Some freedom
Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?


68     Every day
22     Once a week or more but not every day
Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?


59     Constant contact with others
30     Contact with others most of the time
Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?


40     Every day
48     Once a week or more but not every day
11     Once a month or more but not every week
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?


22     Very important results
67     Important results
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?


30     Extremely important
42     Very important
28     Important
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?


23     Continually or almost continually
61     More than half the time
11     About half the time
Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?


19     Every day
59     Once a week or more but not every day
20     Once a month or more but not every week
Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?


29     Every day
49     Once a week or more but not every day
11     Once a year or more but not every month
Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?


37     Every day
26     Once a week or more but not every day
23     Once a month or more but not every week
14     Once a year or more but not every month
Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.


61     More than 40 hours
14     40 hours
24     Less than 40 hours
Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?


15     Every day
41     Once a week or more but not every day
31     Once a month or more but not every week
13     Once a year or more but not every month
Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?


20     Extremely competitive
20     Highly competitive
46     Moderately competitive
Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?


26     Extremely important
21     Very important
29     Important
11     Fairly important
13     Not important at all
Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?


14     Extremely important
30     Very important
23     Important
27     Fairly important
Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?


32     Very important
25     Important
22     Fairly important
12     Not important at all
Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?


14     Once a week or more but not every day
27     Once a month or more but not every week
36     Once a year or more but not every month
14     Never
Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?


19     Moderately close (at arm's length)
12     Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
70     I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office)
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?


31     Once a month or more but not every week
48     Once a year or more but not every month
11     Never
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?


21     Very important
32     Fairly important
32     Not important at all
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?


12     About half the time
82     Less than half the time
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?


13     Moderate responsibility
34     Limited responsibility
36     No responsibility
Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?


12     Extremely serious
34     Fairly serious
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?


15     Once a month or more but not every week
36     Once a year or more but not every month
45     Never
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?


41     Less than half the time
43     Never
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?


11     More than half the time
35     Less than half the time
52     Never
Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?


12     Highly automated
24     Slightly automated
60     Not at all automated
Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?


24     Once a year or more but not every month
66     Never
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?


46     Less than half the time
54     Never
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?


34     Limited responsibility
64     No responsibility
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?


12     Once a month or more but not every week
86     Never
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?


14     Once a year or more but not every month
82     Never
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?


22     Once a year or more but not every month
77     Never
Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?


11     Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
88     Regular (established routine, set schedule)
Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?


90     Never
Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?


20     Less than half the time
80     Never
Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?


94     Never
Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?


97     Never
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?


100     Never
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?


100     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?


100     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?


100     Never
Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?


100     Never
Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?


100     Never
Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?


100     Never
Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?


100     Never
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?


100     Never
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)


100     Not important at all
Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?


100     Never
Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?


99     Never
Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?


100     Never
Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?


99     Never
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?


100     Never
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?


100     Never

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.
SVP Range (8.0 and above)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
54   Doctoral degree
34   Professional degree Help
11   Master's degree

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Credentials

Find Training

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
95   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
78   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
67   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
45   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
28   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
 Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
95   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
93   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
91   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
86   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
82   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
81   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
81   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
81   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
80   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
79   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
77   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
72   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
68   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
65   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
64   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
63   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
83   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
83   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
83   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
78   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
67   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
39   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

19-3094.00 Political Scientists
23-1021.00 Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers
25-1011.00 Business Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1065.00 Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1111.00 Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1125.00 History Teachers, Postsecondary

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2013) $105,080 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 20,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Faster than average (15% to 21%) Faster than average (15% to 21%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 6,500
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Educational Services (100% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

Find Jobs Job Banks

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Postsecondary Teachers external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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