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Details Report for:
25-1191.00 - Graduate Teaching Assistants

Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing teaching or teaching-related duties, such as teaching lower level courses, developing teaching materials, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers. Graduate teaching assistants must be enrolled in a graduate school program. Graduate assistants who primarily perform non-teaching duties, such as research, should be reported in the occupational category related to the work performed.

Sample of reported job titles: Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA), Teaching Assistant (TA), Graduate Assistant, Instructor, Graduate Fellow, Graduate Research Assistant, Research Assistant (RA), Teaching Fellow, Graduate Student Instructor (GSI)

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
80   Core Lead discussion sections, tutorials, or laboratory sections.
74   Core Evaluate and grade examinations, assignments, or papers and record grades.
70   Core Return assignments to students in accordance with established deadlines.
68   Core Schedule and maintain regular office hours to meet with students.
68   Core Inform students of the procedures for completing and submitting class work, such as lab reports.
62   Core Prepare or proctor examinations.
61   Core Notify instructors of errors or problems with assignments.
58   Core Meet with supervisors to discuss students' grades or to complete required grade-related paperwork.
58   Core Copy and distribute classroom materials.
77   Supplemental Demonstrate use of laboratory equipment and enforce laboratory rules.
76   Supplemental Teach undergraduate level courses.
74   Supplemental Complete laboratory projects prior to assigning them to students so that any needed modifications can be made.
71   Supplemental Develop teaching materials, such as syllabi, visual aids, answer keys, supplementary notes, or course Web sites.
69   Supplemental Provide assistance to faculty members or staff with laboratory or field research.
63   Supplemental Arrange for supervisors to conduct teaching observations; meet with supervisors to receive feedback about teaching performance.
53   Supplemental Attend lectures given by the instructor whom they are assisting.
52   Supplemental Order or obtain materials needed for classes.
48   Supplemental Provide instructors with assistance in the use of audiovisual equipment.
47   Supplemental Assist faculty members or staff with student conferences.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Microphone stand — Microphone podiums
Microphones — Handheld microphones; Wireless microphones
Multimedia projectors — Computer projectors; Multimedia projection equipment
Photocopiers — Photocopying equipment
Portable data input terminals — Interactive whiteboard controllers; Student response systems
Projection screens or displays — Projector screens
Scanners — Computer data input scanners
Televisions — Liquid crystal display LCD televisions; Television monitors
Videoconferencing systems — Videoconferencing equipment
Web cameras — Webcams

Technology used in this occupation:

Computer based training software — Blackboard Learn; Desire2Learn; Learning management system LMS software; Sakai CLE * (see all 5 examples)
Data base user interface and query software — Data entry software
Electronic mail software — Email software; Microsoft Outlook
Information retrieval or search software — DOC Cop *; iParadigms Turnitin
Internet browser software — Web browser software
Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
Optical character reader OCR or scanning software — Image scanning software
Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
Word processing software — Collaborative editing software; Google Docs *; Microsoft Word

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

See all 41 T2 categories

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
84   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
76   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
71   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
65   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
61   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
53   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
47   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
46   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
44   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
36   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
33   Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
32   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
32   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
32   History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
28   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
27   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
27   Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
26   Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
22   Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
19   Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
19   Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
18   Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
16   Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
16   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
16   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
16   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
14   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
12   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
11   Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
  Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
  Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
  Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
66   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
63   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
63   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
63   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
60   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
60   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
56   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
50   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
50   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
47   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
47   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
44   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
44   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
41   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
41   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
28   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
28   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
28   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
28   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
25   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
25   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
25   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
19   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
19   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
16   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
16   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
16   Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
13   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
  Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
 Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
 Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
 Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
75   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
66   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
66   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
63   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
60   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
56   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
53   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
50   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
50   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
50   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
44   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
44   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
44   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
44   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
44   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
38   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
35   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
35   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
31   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
31   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
28   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
28   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
28   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
28   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
28   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
25   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
25   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
22   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
22   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
22   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
19   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
19   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
16   Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
10   Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
  Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
  Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
 Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
 Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
 Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
 Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
 Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
 Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
 Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
 Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
 Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
 Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
 Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
73   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
69   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
67   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Assist other educational professionals with projects or research.
  • Discuss problems or issues with supervisors.
65   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
64   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Create technology-based learning materials.
  • Develop instructional materials.
63   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
  • Guide class discussions.
  • Teach others to use technology or equipment.
61   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
59   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
58   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
  • Supervise school or student activities.
58   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
57   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
57   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
  • Attend training sessions or professional meetings to develop or maintain professional knowledge.
56   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
51   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
49   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
  • Administer tests to assess educational needs or progress.
  • Evaluate performance of educational staff.
  • Evaluate student work.
  • Prepare tests.
48   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
43   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
41   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
  • Schedule instructional activities.
39   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
39   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
36   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
36   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
36   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
34   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Supervise laboratory work.
32   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
28   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
27   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
27   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
26   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
25   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
23   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
20   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
19   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
15   Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
14   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
13   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
  • Distribute instructional or library materials.
  • Order instructional or library materials or equipment.
13   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
10   Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
10   Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
10   Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
  Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Context
Work Context
86   Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
84   Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
82   Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
80   Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
76   Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
73   Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
67   Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
64   Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
62   Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
61   Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
59   Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
56   Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
51   Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
50   Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?
48   Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
48   Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
45   Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
41   Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
39   Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
39   Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
39   Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
34   Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
33   Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
33   Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
33   Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
26   Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
26   Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
24   Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
24   Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
24   Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
23   Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
19   Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
19   Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
18   Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
17   Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
17   Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
17   Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
14   Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
12   Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
11   Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
10   Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
  Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
  Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
  Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
  Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
  Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
  Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
  Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
  Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
  Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
  In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
  Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
  Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
 Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
 Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
 In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
 Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, aerospace engineers, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.
SVP Range (8.0 and above)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
30   Bachelor's degree
28   Doctoral degree
27   Master's degree

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
89   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
50   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
39   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
33   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
17   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
  Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
87   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
82   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
81   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
78   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
76   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
75   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
75   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
74   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
70   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
69   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
69   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
67   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
65   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
64   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
60   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
55   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
67   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
56   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
56   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
50   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
45   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
45   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

19-4061.00 Social Science Research Assistants
25-1022.00 Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1063.00 Economics Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1066.00 Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1122.00 Communications Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1123.00 English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1126.00 Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary
25-3011.00 Adult Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy Teachers and Instructors
25-4021.00 Librarians
27-3091.00 Interpreters and Translators   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2013) $29,950 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 150,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Average (8% to 14%) Average (8% to 14%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 38,000
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Educational Services (100% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

Find Jobs Job Banks

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