Summary Report for:
17-2199.01 - Biochemical Engineers
Develop usable, tangible products, using knowledge of biology, chemistry, or engineering. Solve problems related to materials, systems, or processes that interact with humans, plants, animals, microorganisms, or biological materials.
Sample of reported job titles: Engineering Director, Process Engineer
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings
- Devise scalable recovery, purification, or fermentation processes for producing proteins or other biological substances for human or animal therapeutic use, food production or processing, biofuels, or effluent treatment.
- Read current scientific or trade literature to stay abreast of scientific, industrial, or technological advances.
- Design or conduct studies to determine optimal conditions for cell growth, protein production, or protein or virus expression or recovery, using chromatography, separation, or filtration equipment, such as centrifuges or bioreactors.
- Develop biocatalytic processes to convert biomass to fuels or fine chemicals, using enzymes of bacteria, yeast, or other microorganisms.
- Prepare technical reports, data summary documents, or research articles for scientific publication, regulatory submissions, or patent applications.
- Confer with research and biomanufacturing personnel to ensure the compatibility of design and production.
- Design or direct bench or pilot production experiments to determine the scale of production methods that optimize product yield and minimize production costs.
- Develop methodologies for transferring procedures or biological processes from laboratories to commercial-scale manufacturing production.
- Design or conduct follow-up experimentation, based on generated data, to meet established process objectives.
- Maintain databases of experiment characteristics or results.
- Develop recovery processes to separate or purify products from fermentation broths or slurries.
- Consult with chemists or biologists to develop or evaluate novel technologies.
- Advise manufacturing staff regarding problems with fermentation, filtration, or other bioproduction processes.
- Modify or control biological systems to replace, augment, or sustain chemical or mechanical processes.
- Collaborate with manufacturing or quality assurance staff to prepare product specification or safety sheets, standard operating procedures, user manuals, or qualification and validation reports.
- Recommend biochemical process formulas, instrumentation, or equipment specifications, based on results of bench or pilot experimentation.
- Communicate with bioregulatory authorities regarding licensing or compliance responsibilities.
- Communicate with suppliers regarding the design or specifications of bioproduction equipment, instrumentation, or materials.
- Design processes to manufacture synthetic molecules for applications such as pharmaceuticals or pesticides.
- Direct experimental or developmental activities at contracted laboratories.
- Develop bioremediation processes to reduce pollution, protect the environment, or treat waste products.
- Prepare project plans for biochemical equipment or facility improvements, including time lines, budgetary estimates, or capital spending requests.
- Lead studies to examine or recommend changes in process sequences or operation protocols.
- Develop alternative processes to produce crude oil, such as extraction from diatoms or thermochemical conversion of manure or other wastes.
- Develop toxicological or environmental testing processes to measure chemical toxicity or environmental impact.
- Develop experiments to determine production methods that minimize pollution or waste.
- Review existing biomanufacturing processes to ensure compliance with environmental regulations.
- Review existing manufacturing processes to identify opportunities for yield improvement or reduced process variation.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Air samplers or collectors — Aerosol analyzers
- Analytical balances
- Benchtop centrifuges — Centrifuges
- Binocular light compound microscopes — Inverted light microscopes
- Blotting or transfer apparatus — Electroblotting apparatus
- Calorimeters — Bomb calorimeters; Differential scanning calorimeters
- Chemical absorption gas analyzers — Surface area analyzers
- Chemiluminescence or bioluminescence analyzers — Chemiluminescence analyzers
- Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cDNA synthesis kits — Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA synthesizers
- Digital camcorders or video cameras — Camcorders
- Digital cameras
- Dissolved oxygen meters — Dissolved oxygen probes
- Dry wall single chamber carbon dioxide incubators — Carbon dioxide CO2 incubators
- Electronic counters — Automated particle counters; Condensation nuclei counters CNC; Optical particle counters
- Flame ionization analyzers — Flame ionization detectors FID
- Fluorescent microscopes — Fluorescence microscopes
- Fog or mist generators — Aerosol generators
- Freeze dryers or lyopholizers — Freeze dryers
- Gas chromatographs — Gas chromatographs GC
- Gas detectors — Toxic gas detectors
- Gel documentation systems — Protein gel electrophoresis
- High pressure liquid chromatograph chromatography — High pressure liquid chromatographs HPLC
- Infrared spectrometers — Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectrometers
- Instrumentation for capillary electrophoresis — Capillary electrophoresis systems
- Ion chromatographs
- Laminar flow cabinets or stations — Laminar flow hoods
- Liquid chromatographs — Fast protein liquid chromatographs FPLC; Refractive index detectors
- Luxmeters — Digital luxmeters
- Mass spectrometers — Ion trap mass spectrometers; Quadrupole mass spectrometers
- Microbiology analyzers — Flow cytometers
- Microbiology fermentation equipment — Microbial fermenters
- Microplate readers — Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA plate readers
- Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectrometers — Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopes
- Optical diffraction apparatus — Low-pressure impactors; Particle size classifiers
- Orbital shakers
- Organic carbon analyzers — Total organic carbon TOC analyzers
- Oxygen sensors — Oxygen meters
- Personal computers
- pH meters
- Photosynthesis measurement apparatus — Plant photosynthesis meters
- Rapid amplification or complementary deoxyribonucleic acid ends RACE technology products — Real-time polymerase chain reaction PCR equipment
- Reactors or fermenters or digesters — Enzymatic membrane reactors
- Refrigerated and heated reach in environmental or growth chambers — Environmental growth chambers
- Robotic or automated liquid handling systems — Liquid handling robots
- Scanning electron microscopes — Scanning electron microscopes SEM
- Scanning light or spinning disk or laser scanning microscopes — Confocal laser scanning microscopes
- Spectrofluorimeters or fluorimeters — Fluorospectrometers
- Spectrometers — Ultraviolet spectrometers
- Spectrophotometers — Microplate spectrophotometers; Ultraviolet spectrophotometers
- Steam autoclaves or sterilizers — Autoclaves
- Sugar analyzers
- Surface tension measuring instruments — Contact angle goniometers
- Temperature cycling chambers or thermal cyclers — Thermal cyclers
- Tensiometers — Tensionmeters
- Thermocouples — Flash point detectors
- Thickness measuring devices — Ellipsometers
- Tissue culture incubators — Cell culture bioreactors
- Titration equipment — Automatic titrators
- Ultra pure water systems — Ion exchange purification systems
- Viscosimeters — Viscometers
- X ray diffraction equipment — X ray diffractometers
Technology used in this occupation:
- Analytical or scientific software — ApE A Plasmid Editor; SAS software ; The MathWorks MATLAB ; Wolfram Research Mathematica (see all 10 examples)
- Computer aided design CAD software — Bioreactor Design
- Data base user interface and query software — Thomson Reuters EndNote
- Operating system software — UNIX
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
- Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
Detailed Work Activities
- Update technical knowledge.
- Develop technical methods or processes.
- Direct design or development activities.
- Prepare contracts, disclosures, or applications.
- Prepare detailed work plans.
- Recommend technical design or process changes to improve efficiency, quality, or performance.
- Confer with technical personnel to prepare designs or operational plans.
- Research engineering aspects of biological or chemical processes.
- Design electronic or computer equipment or instrumentation.
- Maintain operational records or records systems.
- Create graphical representations of industrial production systems.
- Train personnel on proper operational procedures.
- Create models of engineering designs or methods.
- Devise research or testing protocols.
- Estimate operational costs.
- Develop operational methods or processes that use green materials or emphasize sustainability.
- Prepare technical reports for internal use.
- Estimate time requirements for development or production projects.
- Communicate technical information to suppliers, contractors, or regulatory agencies.
- Conduct validation tests of equipment or processes.
- Inspect operational processes.
- Electronic Mail — 90% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 86% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 62% responded “Every day.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 67% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 57% responded “Extremely important.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 48% responded “Extremely important.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 67% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Telephone — 52% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 57% responded “Some freedom.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 38% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 71% responded “Some freedom.”
- Contact With Others — 33% responded “Contact with others most of the time.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 43% responded “More than half the time.”
- Consequence of Error — 43% responded “Serious.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 48% responded “Moderate results.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 43% responded “Very important.”
- Level of Competition — 52% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Letters and Memos — 62% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 48% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
- Time Pressure — 62% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 33% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 25% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
|Title||Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.|
|Related Experience||A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.|
|Job Zone Examples||Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.|
|SVP Range||(7.0 to < 8.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:
Interest code: IR
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wages data collected from Engineers, All Other.
Employment data collected from Engineers, All Other.
Industry data collected from Engineers, All Other.
|Median wages (2015)||$46.11 hourly, $95,900 annual|
|Employment (2014)||137,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2014-2024)||Slower than average (2% to 4%)|
|Projected job openings (2014-2024)||33,000|
|Top industries (2014)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 wage data and 2014-2024 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.