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Summary Report for:
29-2011.01 - Cytogenetic Technologists

Analyze chromosomes found in biological specimens such as amniotic fluids, bone marrow, and blood to aid in the study, diagnosis, or treatment of genetic diseases.

Sample of reported job titles: Clinical Cytogeneticist Scientist (CCS); Clinical Laboratory Specialist in Cytogenetics (CLSp(CG)); Cytogenetic Technologist; Cytogenetics Laboratory Manager (Cytogenetics Lab Manager); Head of Cytogenetics; Lead Cytogenetic Technologist; Lead Technologist in Cytogenetics; Senior Cytogenetic Technologist; Senior Cytogenetics Laboratory Director; Technical Specialist, Cytogenetics

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks

  • Count numbers of chromosomes and identify the structural abnormalities by viewing culture slides through microscopes, light microscopes, or photomicroscopes. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Arrange and attach chromosomes in numbered pairs on karyotype charts, using standard genetics laboratory practices and nomenclature, to identify normal or abnormal chromosomes. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Analyze chromosomes found in biological specimens to aid diagnoses and treatments for genetic diseases such as congenital birth defects, fertility problems, and hematological disorders. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Examine chromosomes found in biological specimens to detect abnormalities. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Create chromosome images using computer imaging systems. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Select appropriate culturing system or procedure based on specimen type and reason for referral. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Harvest cell cultures using substances such as mitotic arrestants, cell releasing agents, and cell fixatives. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Summarize test results and report to appropriate authorities. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Describe chromosome, FISH and aCGH analysis results in Internations System of Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN) language. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Prepare slides of cell cultures following standard procedures. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Recognize and report abnormalities in the color, size, shape, composition, or pattern of cells. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Prepare biological specimens such as amniotic fluids, bone marrow, tumors, chorionic villi, and blood, for chromosome examinations. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Extract, measure, dilute as appropriate, label, and prepare DNA for array analysis. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Select or prepare specimens and media for cell cultures using aseptic techniques, knowledge of medium components, or cell nutritional requirements. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Input details of specimen processing, analysis, and technical issues into logs or laboratory information systems (LIS). See more occupations related to this task.
  • Apply prepared specimen and control to appropriate grid, run instrumentation, and produce analyzable results. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Select banding methods to permit identification of chromosome pairs. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Stain slides to make chromosomes visible for microscopy. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Input details of specimens into logs or computer systems. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Communicate test results or technical information to patients, physicians, family members, or researchers. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Select appropriate methods of preparation and storage of media to maintain potential of hydrogen (pH), sterility, or ability to support growth. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop, implement, and monitor quality control and quality assurance programs to ensure accurate and precise test performance and reports. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Determine optimal time sequences and methods for manual or robotic cell harvests. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Evaluate appropriateness of received specimens for requested tests. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Communicate to responsible parties unacceptable specimens and suggest remediation for future submissions. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Identify appropriate methods of specimen collection, preservation, or transport. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Archive case documentation and study materials as required by regulations and laws. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Supervise subordinate laboratory staff. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Maintain laboratory equipment such as photomicroscopes, inverted microscopes, and standard darkroom equipment. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop and implement training programs for trainees, medical students, resident physicians or post-doctoral fellows. See more occupations related to this task.

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Tools & Technology

Tools used in this occupation:

  • Binocular light compound microscopes — Binocular compound microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Counters — Counting chambers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Cryogenic or liquid nitrogen freezers — Liquid nitrogen containers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Culture tubes — Cell culture tubes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Darkfield microscopes — Phase contrast microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Deoxyribonucleic sequence analyzers — Computerized karotype equipment; Fluorescent in situ hybridization FISH automation instruments; Metaphase finding system software See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Desktop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital cameras — Uncooled charge-coupled device cameras See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital image printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Distillation pipings or columns or fittings — Glass water distillers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dropping pipettes — 1 ml pipettes; 10 ml pipettes; 25 ml pipettes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dry heat or hot air sterilizers — Hot air sterilizers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dry wall single chamber carbon dioxide incubators — Incubators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Fluorescent microscopes — Automated imaging systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Fume hoods or cupboards — Biological containment hoods See more occupations related to this tool.
  • General purpose refrigerators or refrigerator freezers — Laboratory refrigerators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Histological staining apparatus — Automatic slide loading systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Hybridization ovens or incubators — Denaturation/hybridization systems; Hybridization ovens See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Interferometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Inverted microscopes — Inverted compound microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ion exchange apparatus — Water deionizers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory filtration hardware or accessories — Media filtration systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory flasks — Glass flasks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory incubator thermometers — Reference thermometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory microwave ovens See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory vials — 2 ml cryovials; 4 ml cryovials See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Magnetic stirrers — Heated magnetic stirrers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Medical staff isolation or surgical masks — Masks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Mercury vapor lamp HID — Mercury vapor lamps See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microscope condensers — Microscope filters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microscope slide racks — Slide cassettes; Slide sorters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microscope slides See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Multiwell plates — Flat bottom microtiter plates See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Petri plates or dishes — 35m petri dishes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • pH meters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photo attachments for microscopes — Microscope camera adapters; Photomicroscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Pipette bulbs — Pipette aids See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Protective gloves — Safety gloves See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Refrigerated benchtop centrifuges — Low speed refrigerated centrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanners — Microarray scanners See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Slide dryers — Benchtop drying chambers; Floor model drying chambers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Steam autoclaves or sterilizers — Bench-top autoclaves; Steam autoclaves See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Stereo or dissecting light microscopes — Stereo microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Sterilization cabinets — Biological safety cabinets See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Tachometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Test tube racks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultra cold or ultralow upright cabinets or freezers — Laboratory freezers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultrasonic cleaning equipment — Ultrasonic sterilization units See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultrasonic disintegrators — Cell harvesters; Robotic harvesters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Vortex mixers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Water baths See more occupations related to this tool.

Technology used in this occupation:

  • Analytical or scientific software — Cell Bioscience Automated Image Capture; Geniel Genetics iGene; Lucia MFISH; MetaSystems Isis Color Karyotyping (see all 14 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Data base user interface and query software — Genial Genetics iPassport QMS; Genial Genetics Shire See more occupations related to this technology.

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Knowledge

  • Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods. See more occupations related to this knowledge.

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Skills

  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. See more occupations related to this skill.

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Abilities

  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged. See more occupations related to this ability.

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Work Activities

  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Detailed Work Activities

  • Prepare biological specimens for laboratory analysis. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Analyze laboratory specimens to detect abnormalities or other problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicate test or assessment results to medical professionals. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Create advanced digital images of patients using computer imaging systems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Operate laboratory equipment to analyze medical samples. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Prepare reports summarizing patient diagnostic or care activities. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inform medical professionals regarding patient conditions and care. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Collect biological specimens from patients. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Test biological specimens to gather information about patient conditions. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Maintain medical laboratory equipment. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Determine protocols for medical procedures. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicate detailed medical information to patients or family members. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Prepare official health documents or records. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Maintain medical facility records. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Enter patient or treatment data into computers. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Train medical providers. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor medical facility activities to ensure adherence to standards or regulations. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Develop healthcare quality and safety procedures. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Prepare healthcare training materials. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Supervise technical medical personnel. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Work Context

  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 100% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 88% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 77% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Time Pressure — 73% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 73% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 54% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 62% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — 72% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Sitting — 54% responded “More than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Consequence of Error — 54% responded “Extremely serious.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 56% responded “Continually or almost continually.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Telephone — 54% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Electronic Mail — 60% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 46% responded “Very important results.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 62% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 42% responded “More than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Contact With Others — 50% responded “Contact with others most of the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Frequency of Decision Making — 62% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 31% responded “Very high responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 46% responded “Some freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 54% responded “Some freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Physical Proximity — 54% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 31% responded “High responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — 88% responded “40 hours.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Exposed to Contaminants — 31% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Letters and Memos — 27% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.

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Job Zone

Title Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
73   Bachelor's degree
19   Post-baccalaureate certificate Help
4   Master's degree

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Credentials

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Interests

Interest code: IRC

  • Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow. See more occupations related to this interest.

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Work Styles

  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.

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Work Values

  • Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status. See more occupations related to this work value.

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Related Occupations

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages data collected from Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists.
Employment data collected from Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists.
Industry data collected from Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists.

Median wages (2014) $28.57 hourly, $59,430 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 164,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Average (8% to 14%) Average (8% to 14%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 65,800
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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