Summary Report for:
51-9193.00 - Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders
Operate or tend equipment, such as cooling and freezing units, refrigerators, batch freezers, and freezing tunnels, to cool or freeze products, food, blood plasma, and chemicals.
Sample of reported job titles: Compressor Operator, Compressor Room Operator, Engine Room Operator, Freezer Operator, Freezer Person, Machine Operator, Production Operator, Refrigeration Lead, Refrigeration Operator, Refrigeration Technician
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings
- Adjust machine or freezer speed and air intake to obtain desired consistency and amount of product.
- Monitor pressure gauges, ammeters, flowmeters, thermometers, or products, and adjust controls to maintain specified conditions, such as feed rate, product consistency, temperature, air pressure, and machine speed.
- Record temperatures, amounts of materials processed, or test results on report forms.
- Read dials and gauges on panel control boards to ascertain temperatures, alkalinities, and densities of mixtures, and turn valves to obtain specified mixtures.
- Correct machinery malfunctions by performing actions such as removing jams, and inform supervisors of malfunctions as necessary.
- Start machinery, such as pumps, feeders, or conveyors, and turn valves to heat, admit, or transfer products, refrigerants, or mixes.
- Assemble equipment, and attach pipes, fittings, or valves, using hand tools.
- Scrape, dislodge, or break excess frost, ice, or frozen product from equipment to prevent accumulation, using hands and hand tools.
- Weigh packages and adjust freezer air valves or switches on filler heads to obtain specified amounts of product in each container.
- Stir material with spoons or paddles to mix ingredients or allow even cooling and prevent coagulation.
- Start agitators to blend contents, or start beater, scraper, and expeller blades to mix contents with air and prevent sticking.
- Measure or weigh specified amounts of ingredients or materials, and load them into tanks, vats, hoppers, or other equipment.
- Load and position wrapping paper, sticks, bags, or cartons into dispensing machines.
- Insert forming fixtures, and start machines that cut frozen products into measured portions or specified shapes.
- Place or position containers into equipment, and remove containers after completion of cooling or freezing processes.
- Inspect and flush lines with solutions or steam, and spray equipment with sterilizing solutions.
- Position molds on conveyors, and measure and adjust level of fill, using depth gauges.
- Sample and test product characteristics such as specific gravity, acidity, and sugar content, using hydrometers, pH meters, or refractometers.
- Activate mechanical rakes to regulate flow of ice from storage bins to vats.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Air compressors
- Ammeters — Digital ammeters
- Blast freezers — Batch freezers; Belt freezers; Fluidized bed freezers; Immersion freezers (see all 5 examples)
- Calipers — Digital calipers
- Centrifuges — Oil separators
- Chemical pumps — Secondary fluid pumps
- Chemical tanks — Flash intercoolers; High pressure receivers; Intercoolers; Surge drums
- Condensing units — Air-cooled condensers
- Cooling exchangers — Water chilling systems
- Decontamination shower — Decontamination shower stations
- Ear plugs — Protective ear plugs
- Engine radiators — Oil coolers; Thermosiphon oil coolers
- Evaporative coolers — Direct expansion evaporators; Flooded evaporators; Liquid overfeed evaporators
- Expansion valves — Hand expansion valves; Thermostatic expansion valves
- Eyewashers or eye wash stations — Eyewash stations
- Fire extinguishers — Portable fire extinguishers
- Flowmeters — Digital flowmeters
- Handheld refractometers or polarimeters — Handheld refractometers
- Heat exchangers — Falling film heat exchangers; Plate heat exchangers; Scraped surface heat exchangers; Shell and tube heat exchangers
- Hydrometers — Digital hydrometers
- Ice cube makers — Ice cube forming machines
- Level sensors or transmitters — Liquid level indicators
- Liquid leak detectors — Electronic refrigerant leak detectors
- Low temperature freezers — Spiral freezers
- Manometers — Digital manometers
- Micrometers — Digital micrometers
- Mixers or agitators — Freezing agitators
- Ohmmeters — Ohm meters
- Oil pumps — Low pressure accumulators
- Personal computers
- pH meters — pH testers
- Plate freezers
- Positive displacement pumps — Positive displacement compressors
- Pressure indicators — Ammonia pressure gauges; Magnehelic pressure gauges
- Pressure regulator — Back-pressure regulators
- Radiators — Thermal fluid systems
- Reciprocating compressors
- Refrigerant compressors — Hermetic pumps; Refrigerant pumps
- Relief valves — Defrost relief valves; Pressure relief valves
- Remote reading thermometers — Remote thermometers
- Respirators — Air purifying respirators
- Rotary compressors — Rotary vane compressors
- Rulers — Depth gauges
- Safety boots — Impervious boots
- Safety glasses — Protective glasses
- Sampling pumps — Auto-purgers
- Scissor lift or lift table — Scissor lifts
- Screw compressors — Rotary screw compressors
- Single gas monitors — Ammonia detectors
- Steam condenser — Evaporative condensers
- Steam generators — Boiler generators
- Telescoping boom lift — Telescopic booms
- Thermoelectric cooler — Recirculators
- Ultraviolet UV lamps
- Vacuum gauges — Compound gauges
- Voltage or current meters — Volt meters
- Water cooled condensor — Water-cooled condensers
- Water level regulator — Oil level regulators
Technology used in this occupation:
- Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
- Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
- Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
- Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
Detailed Work Activities
- Mount attachments or tools onto production equipment.
- Collect samples of materials or products for testing.
- Measure ingredients or substances to be used in production processes.
- Mix substances to create chemical solutions.
- Record operational or production data.
- Adjust temperature controls of ovens or other heating equipment.
- Monitor equipment operation to ensure proper functioning.
- Weigh finished products.
- Adjust equipment controls to regulate coolant flow.
- Monitor instruments to ensure proper production conditions.
- Adjust equipment controls to regulate flow of production materials or products.
- Load materials into production equipment.
- Install mechanical components in production equipment.
- Operate mixing equipment.
- Clean production equipment.
- Operate pumping systems or equipment.
- Sterilize food cooking or processing equipment.
- Notify others of equipment repair or maintenance needs.
- Test chemical or physical characteristics of materials or products.
- Clear equipment jams.
- Assemble electromechanical or hydraulic systems.
- Position containers to receive materials or workpieces.
- Adjust position of molds during processing.
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 100% responded “Every day.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 80% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 79% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 89% responded “Every day.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — 69% responded “Every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 70% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 23% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 63% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 72% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 42% responded “Extremely important.”
- Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — 69% responded “Extremely important.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 54% responded “Extremely important.”
- Time Pressure — 56% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 46% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Consequence of Error — 58% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Spend Time Standing — 49% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Contact With Others — 49% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 33% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 44% responded “Important.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 43% responded “Very important results.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 61% responded “Very important.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 36% responded “Some freedom.”
- Physical Proximity — 34% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 36% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Letters and Memos — 33% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 36% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Degree of Automation — 30% responded “Moderately automated.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 35% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 35% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — 49% responded “Less than half the time.”
- Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — 37% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 42% responded “Very little freedom.”
|Title||Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed|
|Education||These occupations usually require a high school diploma.|
|Related Experience||Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.|
|SVP Range||(4.0 to < 6.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|39||High school diploma or equivalent|
|19||Less than high school diploma|
Interest code: RCI
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$13.60 hourly, $28,280 annual|
|Employment (2012)||8,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Little or no change (-2% to 2%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||2,000|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.