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Details Report for:
27-3043.05 - Poets, Lyricists and Creative Writers

Create original written works, such as scripts, essays, prose, poetry or song lyrics, for publication or performance.

Sample of reported job titles: Author, Freelance Writer, Novelist, Songwriter, Lyricist, Book Reviewer, Creative Writer, Documentary Script Writer, Freelance Journalist, Librettist

View report: Summary  Details  Custom

Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
89   Core Revise written material to meet personal standards and to satisfy needs of clients, publishers, directors, or producers.
87   Core Choose subject matter and suitable form to express personal feelings and experiences or ideas, or to narrate stories or events.
84   Core Plan project arrangements or outlines, and organize material accordingly.
84   Core Prepare works in appropriate format for publication, and send them to publishers or producers.
80   Core Follow appropriate procedures to get copyrights for completed work.
78   Core Write fiction or nonfiction prose such as short stories, novels, biographies, articles, descriptive or critical analyses, and essays.
78   Core Develop factors such as themes, plots, characterizations, psychological analyses, historical environments, action, and dialogue, to create material.
78   Core Confer with clients, editors, publishers, or producers to discuss changes or revisions to written material.
75   Core Conduct research to obtain factual information and authentic detail, using sources such as newspaper accounts, diaries, and interviews.
69   Core Write narrative, dramatic, lyric, or other types of poetry for publication.
53   Core Attend book launches and publicity events, or conduct public readings.
82   Supplemental Write words to fit musical compositions, including lyrics for operas, musical plays, and choral works.
60   Supplemental Adapt text to accommodate musical requirements of composers and singers.
48   Supplemental Teach writing classes.
40   Supplemental Write humorous material for publication, or for performances such as comedy routines, gags, and comedy shows.
37   Supplemental Collaborate with other writers on specific projects.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Laser fax machine — Laser facsimile machines
Laser printers — Computer laser printers
Personal computers
Tablet computers

Technology used in this occupation:

Office suite software — Google Drive *; OpenOffice.org *
Text to speech conversion software — Text to speech software
Web page creation and editing software — Blogger *; Red Sweater MarsEdit; Tumblr *; WordPress * (see all 5 examples)
Word processing software — AutoCrit Editing Wizard; Microsoft Word; Write Brothers Dramatica software; WriteWay Pro (see all 15 examples)

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

See all T2 categories and examples

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
92   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
79   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
70   Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
61   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
49   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
49   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
48   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
47   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
46   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
43   History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
37   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
34   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
33   Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
28   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
27   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
27   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
27   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
25   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
22   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
20   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
17   Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
17   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
13   Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
11   Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
11   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
10   Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
10   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
  Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
  Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
  Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
  Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
97   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
78   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
69   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
66   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
66   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
66   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
63   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
63   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
60   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
56   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
53   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
47   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
47   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
47   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
41   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
38   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
38   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
31   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
31   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
31   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
31   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
28   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
22   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
22   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
19   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
19   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
16   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
10   Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
10   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
10   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
  Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
 Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
 Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
88   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
85   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
78   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
78   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
69   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
66   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
66   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
63   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
63   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
60   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
60   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
60   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
56   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
56   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
56   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
56   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
50   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
50   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
41   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
38   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
38   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
38   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
35   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
35   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
31   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
28   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
25   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
22   Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
19   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
19   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
19   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
10   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
  Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
 Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
 Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
 Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
 Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
 Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
 Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
 Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
 Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
 Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
 Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
 Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
 Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
98   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Determine presentation subjects or content.
80   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
  • Obtain copyrights or other legal permissions.
77   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
73   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
71   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
68   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
67   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Write material for artistic or entertainment purposes.
67   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
66   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Edit written materials.
63   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
  • Conduct research to inform art, designs, or other work.
62   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
61   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
  • Promote products, activities, or organizations.
59   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
55   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
54   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Discuss production content and progress with others.
54   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
53   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
51   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
49   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
48   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
45   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
  • Collaborate with others to prepare or perform artistic productions.
44   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
42   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
36   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
36   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
32   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
  • Train others on work processes.
31   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
30   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
29   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
28   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
24   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Coordinate artistic activities.
24   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
21   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
20   Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
16   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
15   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
14   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
14   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
  Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
  Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
  Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Work Context
Percentage of Top Responses
Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?


94     A lot of freedom
Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?


81     Extremely competitive
16     Highly competitive
Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?


84     A lot of freedom
13     Some freedom
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?


63     Continually or almost continually
22     More than half the time
16     About half the time
Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?


66     Every day
19     Once a week or more but not every day
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?


50     Continually or almost continually
22     More than half the time
16     About half the time
13     Never
Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?


25     Every day
56     Once a week or more but not every day
13     Once a month or more but not every week
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?


50     Extremely important
19     Very important
13     Fairly important
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?


50     Continually or almost continually
13     More than half the time
16     Less than half the time
16     Never
Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.


55     More than 40 hours
19     40 hours
26     Less than 40 hours
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?


28     Very important results
31     Important results
25     Minor results
Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?


38     Once a week or more but not every day
34     Once a month or more but not every week
19     Once a year or more but not every month
Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?


16     Every day
25     Once a week or more but not every day
41     Once a month or more but not every week
16     Once a year or more but not every month
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?


38     Extremely important
16     Very important
13     Important
28     Not important at all
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?


47     Every day
38     Never
Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?


16     Constant contact with others
16     Contact with others most of the time
28     Contact with others about half the time
41     Occasional contact with others
Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?


25     Every day
16     Once a week or more but not every day
13     Once a month or more but not every week
31     Once a year or more but not every month
16     Never
Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?


28     Once a week or more but not every day
34     Once a month or more but not every week
31     Once a year or more but not every month
Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?


78     Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
22     Regular (established routine, set schedule)
Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?


13     Very important
31     Important
25     Fairly important
25     Not important at all
Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?


34     Once a month or more but not every week
47     Once a year or more but not every month
Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?


25     Important
22     Fairly important
34     Not important at all
Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?


16     Important
22     Fairly important
44     Not important at all
Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?


13     Extremely serious
16     Serious
16     Fairly serious
50     Not serious at all
Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?


13     Once a month or more but not every week
75     Once a year or more but not every month
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?


19     Moderate responsibility
13     Limited responsibility
53     No responsibility
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?


13     Once a month or more but not every week
13     Once a year or more but not every month
56     Never
Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?


19     Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
56     I don't work near other people (beyond 100 ft.)
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?


28     About half the time
44     Less than half the time
28     Never
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?


16     Once a month or more but not every week
56     Once a year or more but not every month
28     Never
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?


16     Once a month or more but not every week
63     Never
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?


16     Once a year or more but not every month
66     Never
Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?


23     Slightly automated
65     Not at all automated
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?


25     Once a year or more but not every month
66     Never
Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?


31     Once a year or more but not every month
59     Never
Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?


31     Once a year or more but not every month
63     Never
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?


38     Less than half the time
59     Never
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?


84     Never
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?


16     Limited responsibility
78     No responsibility
Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?


16     Once a year or more but not every month
78     Never
Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?


91     Never
Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?


16     Less than half the time
81     Never
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)


91     Not important at all
Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?


19     Less than half the time
81     Never
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?


88     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?


94     Never
Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?


91     Never
Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?


94     Never
Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?


97     Never
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?


94     Never
Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?


94     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?


97     Never
Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?


97     Never
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?


97     Never
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?


97     Never
Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?


100     Never
Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?


100     Never

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
32   High school diploma or equivalent Help
32   Bachelor's degree
16   Less than high school diploma

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Credentials

Find Training Find Certifications

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
100   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
67   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
45   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
22   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
17   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
11   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
97   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
94   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
93   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
92   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
92   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
84   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
77   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
72   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
71   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
70   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
64   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
58   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
52   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
52   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
51   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
32   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
83   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
78   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
67   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
64   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
28   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
17   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

13-1011.00 Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes
25-3011.00 Adult Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy Teachers and Instructors
25-4021.00 Librarians
27-3021.00 Broadcast News Analysts
27-3022.00 Reporters and Correspondents Green Occupation
27-3031.00 Public Relations Specialists   Green Occupation Green
27-3041.00 Editors
27-3042.00 Technical Writers
27-3043.04 Copy Writers
43-9081.00 Proofreaders and Copy Markers

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages data collected from Writers and Authors.
Employment data collected from Writers and Authors.
Industry data collected from Writers and Authors.

Median wages (2013) $27.77 hourly, $57,750 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 129,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Slower than average (3% to 7%) Slower than average (3% to 7%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 31,800
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Self-Employed (64% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

Find Jobs Job Banks

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Writers and Authors external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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