Summary Report for:
11-9032.00 - Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School
Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic, administrative, or auxiliary activities of public or private elementary or secondary level schools.
Sample of reported job titles: Assistant Principal, Athletic Director, Elementary Principal, High School Principal, Middle School Principal, Principal, School Administrator, School Superintendent, Special Education Director, Superintendent
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Enforce discipline and attendance rules.
- Confer with parents and staff to discuss educational activities, policies, and student behavioral or learning problems.
- Observe teaching methods and examine learning materials to evaluate and standardize curricula and teaching techniques, and to determine areas where improvement is needed.
- Collaborate with teachers to develop and maintain curriculum standards, develop mission statements, and set performance goals and objectives.
- Recruit, hire, train, and evaluate primary and supplemental staff.
- Evaluate curricula, teaching methods, and programs to determine their effectiveness, efficiency, and utilization, and to ensure that school activities comply with federal, state, and local regulations.
- Counsel and provide guidance to students regarding personal, academic, vocational, or behavioral issues.
- Establish, coordinate, and oversee particular programs across school districts, such as programs to evaluate student academic achievement.
- Set educational standards and goals, and help establish policies and procedures to carry them out.
- Plan and lead professional development activities for teachers, administrators, and support staff.
- Determine allocations of funds for staff, supplies, materials, and equipment, and authorize purchases.
- Prepare and submit budget requests and recommendations, or grant proposals to solicit program funding.
- Determine the scope of educational program offerings, and prepare drafts of course schedules and descriptions to estimate staffing and facility requirements.
- Prepare, maintain, or oversee the preparation and maintenance of attendance, activity, planning, or personnel reports and records.
- Review and approve new programs, or recommend modifications to existing programs, submitting program proposals for school board approval as necessary.
- Recommend personnel actions related to programs and services.
- Direct and coordinate activities of teachers, administrators, and support staff at schools, public agencies, and institutions.
- Participate in special education-related activities such as attending meetings and providing support to special educators throughout the district.
- Organize and direct committees of specialists, volunteers, and staff to provide technical and advisory assistance for programs.
- Direct and coordinate school maintenance services and the use of school facilities.
- Advocate for new schools to be built, or for existing facilities to be repaired or remodeled.
- Plan and develop instructional methods and content for educational, vocational, or student activity programs.
- Develop partnerships with businesses, communities, and other organizations to help meet identified educational needs and to provide school-to-work programs.
- Meet with federal, state, and local agencies to keep updated on policies and to discuss improvements for education programs.
- Plan, coordinate, and oversee school logistics programs such as bus and food services.
- Review and interpret government codes, and develop programs to ensure adherence to codes and facility safety, security, and maintenance.
- Collect and analyze survey data, regulatory information, and data on demographic and employment trends to forecast enrollment patterns and curriculum change needs.
- Coordinate and direct extracurricular activities and programs such as after-school events and athletic contests.
- Mentor and support administrative staff members such as superintendents and principals.
- Teach classes or courses to students.
- Write articles, manuals, and other publications, and assist in the distribution of promotional literature about facilities and programs.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Alarm systems — Fire alarm systems; Security alarm systems
- Desktop computers
- Liquid crystal display projector — Digital projectors
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Personal computers
- Photocopiers — Photocopying equipment
- Public address systems — Public address PA systems
- Special purpose telephones — Multi-line telephone systems
- Touch screen monitors — Interactive whiteboards
- Two way radios
Technology used in this occupation:
- Calendar and scheduling software — Google Calendar *; Scheduling software
- Data base user interface and query software — L-Systems X-ONE; LogicalBit Eimas; Microsoft Access; School Attendance Keeper * (see all 5 examples)
- Electronic mail software — Gmail; Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — ACS Technologies HeadMaster; Blackbaud The Education Edge; Thinc Technologies Virtual School; Wilcomp Software RenWeb (see all 17 examples)
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Office suite software — Google Drive *; Microsoft Office software
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
- Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
- Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
- Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
Detailed Work Activities
- Supervise employees.
- Direct organizational operations, projects, or services.
- Develop operating strategies, plans, or procedures.
- Promote products, services, or programs.
- Prepare financial documents, reports, or budgets.
- Direct facility maintenance or repair activities.
- Evaluate program effectiveness.
- Coordinate special events or programs.
- Advise others on career or personal development.
- Approve expenditures.
- Develop organizational policies or programs.
- Determine operational compliance with regulations or standards.
- Prepare operational budgets.
- Develop educational goals, standards, policies, or procedures.
- Conduct employee training programs.
- Advise others on business or operational matters.
- Develop safety standards, policies, or procedures.
- Establish interpersonal business relationships to facilitate work activities.
- Analyze forecasting data to improve business decisions.
- Maintain knowledge of current developments in area of expertise.
- Develop promotional materials.
- Hire personnel.
- Prepare operational progress or status reports.
- Recruit personnel.
- Support the professional development of others.
- Conduct opinion surveys or needs assessments.
- Prepare forms or applications.
- Recommend organizational process or policy changes.
- Teach classes in area of specialization.
- Maintain personnel records.
- Prepare proposals or grant applications to obtain project funding.
- Coordinate operational activities with external stakeholders.
- Manage outreach activities.
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 100% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 100% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others — 91% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 92% responded “Extremely important.”
- Electronic Mail — 91% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 78% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 73% responded “Extremely important.”
- Deal With External Customers — 79% responded “Extremely important.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 66% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 64% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 85% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 68% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 55% responded “Very important results.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 54% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Letters and Memos — 54% responded “Every day.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 42% responded “Every day.”
- Time Pressure — 37% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 43% responded “Very important.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 68% responded “Every day.”
- Public Speaking — 45% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Physical Proximity — 34% responded “I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office).”
- Level of Competition — 27% responded “Slightly competitive.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 38% responded “About half the time.”
- Consequence of Error — 31% responded “Very serious.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 28% responded “Never.”
|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
Interest code: ESC
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$89,540 annual|
|Employment (2012)||232,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Slower than average (3% to 7%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||74,700|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Elementary, Middle, and High School Principals . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.