Summary Report for:
17-2199.09 - Nanosystems Engineers
Design, develop, or supervise the production of materials, devices, or systems of unique molecular or macromolecular composition, applying principles of nanoscale physics and electrical, chemical, or biological engineering.
Sample of reported job titles: Advanced Research Programs Director, Microarray Operations Vice President, Research Scientist, Scientist, Technical Programs Manager
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Wages & Employment | Job Openings
- Write proposals to secure external funding or to partner with other companies.
- Synthesize, process, or characterize nanomaterials, using advanced tools or techniques.
- Supervise technologists or technicians engaged in nanotechnology research or production.
- Prepare reports, deliver presentations, or participate in program review activities to communicate engineering results or recommendations.
- Provide scientific or technical guidance or expertise to scientists, engineers, technologists, technicians, or others, using knowledge of chemical, analytical, or biological processes as applied to micro and nanoscale systems.
- Conduct research related to a range of nanotechnology topics, such as packaging, heat transfer, fluorescence detection, nanoparticle dispersion, hybrid systems, liquid systems, nanocomposites, nanofabrication, optoelectronics, or nanolithography.
- Identify new applications for existing nanotechnologies.
- Design or conduct tests of new nanotechnology products, processes, or systems.
- Develop processes or identify equipment needed for pilot or commercial nanoscale scale production.
- Generate high-resolution images or measure force-distance curves, using techniques such as atomic force microscopy.
- Design nano-enabled products with reduced toxicity, increased durability, or improved energy efficiency.
- Provide technical guidance or support to customers on topics such as nanosystem start-up, maintenance, or use.
- Prepare nanotechnology-related invention disclosures or patent applications.
- Engineer production processes for specific nanotechnology applications, such as electroplating, nanofabrication, or epoxy.
- Design or engineer nanomaterials, nanodevices, nano-enabled products, or nanosystems, using three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) software.
- Develop catalysis or other green chemistry methods to synthesize nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, nanocrystals, nanorods, or nanowires.
- Apply nanotechnology to improve the performance or reduce the environmental impact of energy products, such as fuel cells or solar cells.
- Create designs or prototypes for nanosystem applications, such as biomedical delivery systems or atomic force microscopes.
- Design nanosystems with components such as nanocatalysts or nanofiltration devices to clean specific pollutants from hazardous waste sites.
- Coordinate or supervise the work of suppliers or vendors in the designing, building, or testing of nanosystem devices, such as lenses or probes.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Atomic absorption AA spectrometers — Atomic absorption spectrometers
- Binocular light compound microscopes — Differential interference contrast DIC microscopes; Fluorescence optical microscopes; Optical inspection microscopes; Optical profilers
- Capacitance meters — Capacitance-voltage C-V plotters
- Computer servers
- Cryogenic temperature controllers — Temperature controllers
- Desktop computers
- Drying cabinets or ovens — Critical point dryers; Spin dryers; Spin rinse dryers
- Electronic measuring probes — Probe stations
- Fume hoods or cupboards — Fume hoods
- Handheld refractometers or polarimeters — Handheld refractometers
- Impedance meters — Four-point probes; Impedance analyzers
- Infrared dryers — Ultraviolet UV exposure units
- Infrared spectrometers — Infrared microscopes
- Inkjet printers
- Isolation glove boxes
- Laboratory evaporators — Filament evaporators; Resistance evaporators; Thermal evaporators
- Laboratory safety furnaces — Ashing systems; Atmospheric furnaces; Oxidation furnaces
- Lasers — Pulsed laser systems; Tunable lasers
- Light scattering equipment — Zeta potential analyzers
- Microprocessors — Graphics processing units GPU
- Microtomes — Cryocut microtomes; Ultramicrotomes
- Network analyzers
- Optical diffraction apparatus — Particle size analyzers
- Polarizing microscopes — Raman scattering microscopes
- Potentiometers — Potentiostats
- Reciprocating shaking water baths — Reciprocating shaker water baths
- Scanning electron microscopes — Field emission scanning electron microscopes FESEM; Focused ion beam scanning electron microscopes FIB-SEM; Scanning auger microscopes; Scanning electron microscopes SEM
- Scanning light or spinning disk or laser scanning microscopes — Confocal Raman microscopes; Laser scanning confocal microscopes
- Scanning probe microscopes — Atomic force microscopes AFM; Scanning tunneling microscopes STM
- Semiconductor process systems — Molecular beam epitaxy MBE systems; Nanoimprint lithography NIL systems; Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition PECVD systems; Wafer saws (see all 25 examples)
- Semiconductor testers — Semiconductor parameter analyzers
- Signal generators — Laser pattern generators; Optical pattern generators
- Spectrometers — Energy dispersive x-ray EDX spectroscopes; Raman scattering spectroscopes; Secondary ion mass spectrometers SIMS; X-ray photoelectron spectrometers
- Surface testers — Profilometers; Surface profilers
- Temperature cycling chambers or thermal cyclers — Rapid thermal annealers RTA
- Thermal differential analyzers — Laser flash systems
- Thickness measuring devices — Ellipsometers; Scanning ellipsometers; Spectroscopic ellipsometers
- Transmission electron microscopes — Transmission electron microscopes TEM
- Tumblers or polishers — Chemical mechanical polishing CMP systems; Lapping machines
- Vacuum ovens
- Video attachments for microscopes — Video microscopes
- Voltage or current meters — Surface charge analyzers
- X ray diffraction equipment — X ray diffractometers
Technology used in this occupation:
- Analytical or scientific software — General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System GAMESS *; QuantumWise Atomistix ToolKit; UTQUANT *; Vienna Ab-Initio Simulation Package VASP (see all 15 examples)
- Computer aided design CAD software — Autodesk AutoCAD software; LinkCAD; Optical Research Associates LightTools; PTC Pro/ENGINEER software (see all 8 examples)
- Computer aided manufacturing CAM software — Rapid prototyping software
- Development environment software — National Instruments LabVIEW
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Freehand
- Operating system software — Linux software
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
- Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
Detailed Work Activities
- Prepare operational reports.
- Advise customers on the use of products or services.
- Develop technical methods or processes.
- Measure physical or chemical properties of materials or objects.
- Prepare contracts, disclosures, or applications.
- Test performance of electrical, electronic, mechanical, or integrated systems or equipment.
- Design alternative energy systems.
- Supervise engineering or other technical personnel.
- Provide technical guidance to other personnel.
- Research engineering aspects of biological or chemical processes.
- Prepare proposal documents.
- Coordinate activities with suppliers, contractors, clients, or other departments.
- Explain engineering drawings, specifications, or other technical information.
- Operate precision equipment to control microscopic or nanoscopic processes.
- Devise research or testing protocols.
- Develop operational methods or processes that use green materials or emphasize sustainability.
- Create physical models or prototypes.
- Research engineering applications of emerging technologies.
- Identify new applications for existing technologies.
- Design materials for industrial or commercial applications.
- Design micro- or nano-scale materials, devices, or systems.
- Electronic Mail — 96% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 91% responded “Every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 75% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 52% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 48% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 48% responded “Very important.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 50% responded “Extremely important.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 46% responded “Some freedom.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 42% responded “Some freedom.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 39% responded “Every day.”
- Level of Competition — 73% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 38% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Contact With Others — 33% responded “Contact with others most of the time.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 54% responded “More than half the time.”
- Letters and Memos — 35% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 43% responded “High responsibility.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 39% responded “Very important.”
- Time Pressure — 46% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 46% responded “Moderate results.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 30% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Physical Proximity — 78% responded “Slightly close (e.g., shared office).”
|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:
Interest code: IRE
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wages data collected from Engineers, All Other.
Employment data collected from Engineers, All Other.
Industry data collected from Engineers, All Other.
|Median wages (2014)||$45.31 hourly, $94,240 annual|
|Employment (2012)||133,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Slower than average (3% to 7%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||29,500|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.