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Summary Report for:
19-1012.00 - Food Scientists and Technologists

Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food.

Sample of reported job titles: Food Science Professor, Food Scientist, Food Technologist, Product Development Manager, Product Development Scientist, Professor, Quality Assurance Manager (QA Manager), Research and Development Director (R & D Director), Research and Development Manager (R & D Manager), Research Scientist

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks

  • Check raw ingredients for maturity or stability for processing and finished products for safety, quality, and nutritional value. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Inspect food processing areas to ensure compliance with government regulations and standards for sanitation, safety, quality, and waste management standards. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Evaluate food processing and storage operations and assist in the development of quality assurance programs for such operations. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Study methods to improve aspects of foods, such as chemical composition, flavor, color, texture, nutritional value, and convenience. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Stay up-to-date on new regulations and current events regarding food science by reviewing scientific literature. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Test new products for flavor, texture, color, nutritional content, and adherence to government and industry standards. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop food standards and production specifications, safety and sanitary regulations, and waste management and water supply specifications. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop new or improved ways of preserving, processing, packaging, storing, and delivering foods, using knowledge of chemistry, microbiology, and other sciences. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Confer with process engineers, plant operators, flavor experts, and packaging and marketing specialists to resolve problems in product development. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Study the structure and composition of food or the changes foods undergo in storage and processing. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Demonstrate products to clients. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop new food items for production, based on consumer feedback. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Search for substitutes for harmful or undesirable additives, such as nitrites. See more occupations related to this task.

Find occupations related to multiple tasks

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Tools & Technology

Tools used in this occupation:

  • Air samplers or collectors — Air sampling systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Amino acid analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Anaerobic chamber — Anaerobic growth chambers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Analytical balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Atomic absorption AA spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Autosamplers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Bench refractometers or polarimeters — Differential refractometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Blanching machinery — Steam blanchers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Blast freezers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Calorimeters — Computerized calorimeters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Color sensors — Color difference meters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Colorimeters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use deep fryers — Batch fryers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use food choppers or cubers or dicers — Food choppers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use food grinders — Meat grinders See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use food slicers — Food slicers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use griddles — Griddles See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use grills — Grills See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use microwave ovens — Commercial microwave ovens See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use mixers — Food mixers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use ranges — Induction cooktops; Ranges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Commercial use steamers — Steam kettles See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Conductivity meters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Cooking machinery — Jet cooking systems; Thermal processing equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Crushing machinery — Food crushers; Fruit presses; Pulper finishers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Cutting machinery — Meat saws See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Darkfield microscopes — Phase contrast microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dehydrating machinery — Drum dryers; Food dehydrators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dehydrators — Dehydration equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Desktop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dry wall single chamber carbon dioxide incubators — Carbon dioxide CO2 laboratory incubators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic counters — Laser colony counters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electrophoresis system accessories — Fraction collectors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Extracting equipment for laboratories — Extractors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Fat extractors — Specific gravity fat analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Filling machinery — Piston filling machines; Stuffers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Flask or retort units — Retort sterilization equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Fluorescent microscopes — Epifluorescence microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Forced air or mechanical convection general purpose incubators — Programmable incubators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Freeze dryers or lyopholizers — Freeze drying equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gas chromatographs — Gas chromatographs GC See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gel documentation systems — Gel electrophoresis equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • High pressure liquid chromatograph chromatography — High pressure liquid chromatograph HPLC equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Homogenizers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ice cream machines — Ice cream freezers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Infrared spectrometers — Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectrometers; Infrared IR spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ion chromatographs See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Juicing machinery — Dejuicers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Kjeldahl nitrogen determination apparatus — Macro kjeldahls; Micro kjeldahls See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory balances — Electronic laboratory balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory blenders or emulsifiers — Emulsifiers; Pulsifiers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory box furnaces — Muffle furnaces See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory diluters — Automatic diluters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory heat exchange condensers — Heat exchangers; Plate heat exchangers; Tubular heat exchangers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory mechanical convection ovens — Laboratory ovens See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory membrane filters — Membrane filtration systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory mills See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Lasers — Laboratory lasers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Light scattering equipment — Dynamic light scattering equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Manual or electronic hematology differential cell counters — Coulter counters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Mass spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Melting point recorders — Melting point apparatus See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microbiological aircontrol equipment — Microbial monitoring systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microbiology analyzers — Bacterial identification systems; Spiral platers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microcentrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microplate readers — Scanning plate readers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Nephelometers — Benchtop nephelometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Nitrogen or nitrate or nitrite analyzer — Nitrogen analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Notebook computers — Laptop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Orbital shaking water baths See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Oscilloscopes — Digital oscilloscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Oxygen gas analyzers — Oxygen analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Packaging vacuum — Vacuum packagers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Personal computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • pH meters — pH indicators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Refrigerated benchtop centrifuges — High speed refrigerated centrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Rheometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Roasting machinery — Roasting equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanning electron microscopes — Scanning electron microscopes SEM See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Solution strength estimation apparatus — Torsion gelometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrofluorimeters or fluorimeters — Spectrofluorimeters; Ultraviolet UV spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrometers — Reflectance spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Standard fermentation units — Fermenting tanks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Steam autoclaves or sterilizers — Steam autoclaves See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Sterilization cabinets — Biological safety cabinets See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Stomachers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Strain gauges — Strain testers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Sugar analyzers — Glucose analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Temperature cycling chambers or thermal cyclers — Thermal cyclers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Thermal differential analyzers — Dynamic mechanical analyzers DMA See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Thermo gravimetry analyzers — Thermal gravimetric analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Tissue culture incubators — Bioreactors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Vacuum or rotary evaporators — Rotary evaporators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Viscosimeters — Amylographs; Viscometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Water analysis systems — Water activity meters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Water baths — Laboratory water baths See more occupations related to this tool.
  • X ray diffraction equipment — X ray crystallography equipment See more occupations related to this tool.

Technology used in this occupation:

  • Analytical or scientific software — BioDiscovery ImaGene; Insightful S-PLUS; MDS Analytical Technologies GenePix Pro; StatSoft STATISTICA software (see all 6 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Data base user interface and query software — PathogenTracker *; U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA National Nutrient Database See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word See more occupations related to this technology.

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

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Knowledge

  • Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects. See more occupations related to this knowledge.

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Skills

  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Instructing — Teaching others how to do something. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things. See more occupations related to this skill.

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Abilities

  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged. See more occupations related to this ability.

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Work Activities

  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Detailed Work Activities

  • Evaluate quality of materials or products. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Confer with clients to exchange information. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Test quality of materials or finished products. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Review professional literature to maintain professional knowledge. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inspect areas for compliance with sanitation standards. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Research methods to improve food products. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Establish standards for products, processes, or procedures. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Collaborate with technical specialists to resolve design or development problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Evaluate new technologies or methods. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Work Context

  • Electronic Mail — 100% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Telephone — 77% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 65% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 73% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 50% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Contact With Others — 50% responded “Constant contact with others.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 54% responded “Very important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — 54% responded “More than 40 hours.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Letters and Memos — 58% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Time Pressure — 62% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 38% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 35% responded “Some freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 54% responded “Some freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — 54% responded “Very important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 46% responded “High responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 38% responded “Moderate responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Sitting — 50% responded “About half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Level of Competition — 38% responded “Highly competitive.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 46% responded “Important results.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Deal With External Customers — 38% responded “Very important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 46% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Frequency of Decision Making — 31% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Physical Proximity — 62% responded “Slightly close (e.g., shared office).” See more occupations related to this work context.

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Job Zone

Title Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
69   Bachelor's degree
19   Master's degree
8   Doctoral degree

This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:

Life Sciences — Agriculture, General; Food Science and Technology; International Agriculture

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Credentials

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Interests

Interest code: IRC

  • Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow. See more occupations related to this interest.

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Work Styles

  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. See more occupations related to this work style.

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Work Values

  • Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status. See more occupations related to this work value.

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Related Occupations

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2014) $29.56 hourly, $61,480 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 19,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Average (8% to 14%) Average (8% to 14%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 8,500
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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