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Summary Report for:
19-1022.00 - Microbiologists

Investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Includes medical microbiologists who study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms.

Sample of reported job titles: Bacteriologist, Clinical Laboratory Scientist, Clinical Microbiologist, Microbiological Analyst, Microbiological Laboratory Technician, Microbiologist, Microbiology Laboratory Manager, Professor of Microbiology, Quality Control Microbiologist (QC Microbiologist), Study Director

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks

  • Investigate the relationship between organisms and disease including the control of epidemics and the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Prepare technical reports and recommendations based upon research outcomes. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Supervise biological technologists and technicians and other scientists. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Provide laboratory services for health departments, for community environmental health programs and for physicians needing information for diagnosis and treatment. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Use a variety of specialized equipment such as electron microscopes, gas chromatographs and high pressure liquid chromatographs, electrophoresis units, thermocyclers, fluorescence activated cell sorters and phosphoimagers. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Examine physiological, morphological, and cultural characteristics, using microscope, to identify and classify microorganisms in human, water, and food specimens. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Study growth, structure, development, and general characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms to understand their relationship to human, plant, and animal health. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Isolate and maintain cultures of bacteria or other microorganisms in prescribed or developed media, controlling moisture, aeration, temperature, and nutrition. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Observe action of microorganisms upon living tissues of plants, higher animals, and other microorganisms, and on dead organic matter. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Study the structure and function of human, animal and plant tissues, cells, pathogens and toxins. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Conduct chemical analyses of substances such as acids, alcohols, and enzymes. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Monitor and perform tests on water, food, and the environment to detect harmful microorganisms or to obtain information about sources of pollution, contamination, or infection. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop new products and procedures for sterilization, food and pharmaceutical supply preservation, or microbial contamination detection. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Research use of bacteria and microorganisms to develop vitamins, antibiotics, amino acids, grain alcohol, sugars, and polymers. See more occupations related to this task.

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Tools & Technology

Tools used in this occupation:

  • Air samplers or collectors — Bioaerosol impactors; Dichotomous particulate matter samplers; Liquid impingers; Multistage agar impactors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Anaerobic chamber — Anaerobic growth chambers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Analytical balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Automated cover slipping equipment — Automatic coverslipper See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Automated microscope stages — Micromanipulators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Benchtop centrifuges — Desktop centrifuges; High-speed centrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Binocular light compound microscopes — Bright field light microscopes; Compound binocular light microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Blotting or transfer apparatus — Gel transfer apparatus; Semidry blotting apparatus See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Calorimeters — Microcalorimeters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Circulating baths — Fecal coliform water baths See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Conductivity meters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Counters — Bubble counters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Cryogenic or liquid nitrogen freezers — Liquid nitrogen storage equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Culture tubes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Darkfield microscopes — Phase contrast microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Decontamination shower — Chemical safety showers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Deoxyribonucleic sequence analyzers — Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequencers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Desktop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Developing tanks — Darkroom developing tanks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital cameras — Charge coupled device CCD color digital cameras See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dissolved oxygen meters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dropping pipettes — Micropipettes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dry baths or heating blocks — Dry bath incubators; Heat blocks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dry heat or hot air sterilizers — Bacticinerators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dry wall single chamber carbon dioxide incubators — Direct heat dry wall carbon dioxide CO2 incubators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Drying cabinets or ovens — Drying ovens See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic counters — Colony counters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic encyclopedias — Hardy Diagnostics HUGO See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic multichannel pipetters — 8-channel electronic pipettes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic toploading balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electroporation cuvettes — Electroporators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Eyewashers or eye wash stations — Eyewash fountains See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Fire extinguishers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Fluorescent microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Forced air or mechanical convection general purpose incubators — Bacteriological incubators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Freeze dryers or lyopholizers — Freeze dryers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • French pressure cells — French presses See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gas burners — Laboratory gas burners See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gas chromatographs — Gas chromatographs GC See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gas generators — Gas-powered generators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gel boxes — Gel electrophoresis boxes; Gel support frames See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gel documentation systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • General purpose refrigerators or refrigerator freezers — Laboratory refrigerators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • General purpose trays — Multiwell trays See more occupations related to this tool.
  • HEPA filtered enclosures — HEPA filtered biosafety cabinets See more occupations related to this tool.
  • High pressure liquid chromatograph chromatography — High pressure liquid chromatographs HPLC See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Homogenizers — Tissue homogenizers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Hybridization ovens or incubators — Hybridization ovens See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Impedance meters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Infra red or ultra violet absorption analyzers — Infrared gas analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Infrared spectrometers — Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectrometers; Infrared IR spectrometers; Mid-infrared spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Inverted microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory adapters or connectors or fittings — Erlenmeyer flask clamps See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory balances — Micro balances; Precision pan balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory beakers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory flasks — Erlenmeyer flasks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory funnels See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory graduated cylinders — Graduated glass laboratory cylinders See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory heat exchange condensers — Laboratory heat exchange condensing devices See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory hotplates — Heating stirplates See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory incubator thermometers — Recording thermometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory membrane filters — Laboratory membrane filtering devices; Membrane filtration systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory mixers — Rotator mixers; Serology rotators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory staining dishes or jars — Coplin jars; Staining dishes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory vacuum pumps See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory washing machines — Laboratory glassware washers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laminar flow cabinets or stations — Laminar flow cabinets See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laser printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Lasers — Argon lasers; Helium-neon lasers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Liquid chromatographs — Liquid chromatograph devices See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Magnetic stirrers — Magnetic laboratory stirrers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Manual or electronic hematology differential cell counters — Automatic cell sorters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Mass spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microbiology analyzers — Automated microbial identification systems; Flow cytometers; Fluorescence activated cell sorters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microbiology fermentation equipment — Bioreactors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microbiology inoculation loops or needles — Inoculating loops See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microbiology slide stainers — Automated gram stainers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microcentrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microplate readers — Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA plate readers; Multiplate readers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microscope objectives — Oil-immersion microscope lenses See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microscope slides See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Multipurpose or general test tubes — Laboratory test tubes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Notebook computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Orbital shaking water baths See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Osmometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Peristaltic pumps See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Personal computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Petri plates or dishes — Petri dishes; Sectioned petri plates See more occupations related to this tool.
  • pH meters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photo attachments for microscopes — Photomicroscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Pipette pumps See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Pipetter inserts or accessories — Rechargeable electronic pipette fillers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Protective coats — Protective laboratory coats See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Protective gloves See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Refrigerated baths — Refrigerated recirculating water baths See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Refrigerated benchtop centrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Respirators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Robotic or automated liquid handling systems — Automatic pipetters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Rotating shakers — Floor shakers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Safety glasses See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Safety hoods — Biological safety hoods See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Safety shoes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanning electron microscopes — Scanning electron microscopes SEM See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Shaking incubators — Orbital shaking incubators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Specialty plates for bacteria — Prepared agar plates See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Specimen collection container — Water sample collection containers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrometers — Raman spectrometers; Visible spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrophotometers — Visible/UV light scanning spectrophotometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spirit burners — Alcohol lamps See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Steam autoclaves or sterilizers — Autoclaves; Electronic sterilizers; Steroclaves See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Stereo or dissecting light microscopes — Dissecting microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Temperature cycling chambers or thermal cyclers — Thermocyclers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Test tube racks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Tissue culture flasks — Culture bottles See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Transilluminators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Transmission electron microscopes — Transmission electron microscopes TEM See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultra cold or ultralow upright cabinets or freezers — Ultra cold biological freezers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultra pure water systems — Deionized DI water systems; Water purification systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultracentrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultrasonic disintegrators — Sonicators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultraviolet UV lamps See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Vortex mixers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • X ray diffraction equipment — X ray diffractometers See more occupations related to this tool.

Technology used in this occupation:

  • Analytical or scientific software — BD Biosciences CellQuest; Protein Explorer *; TreeView *; Verity Software House ModFit LT (see all 29 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Data base user interface and query software — Database management software; WHONET * See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Electronic mail software — Email software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Information retrieval or search software — ComBase * See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Internet browser software — Web browser software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Medical software — Computer Service & Support CLS-2000 Laboratory System; Orchard Software Orchard Harvest LIS See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word See more occupations related to this technology.

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

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Knowledge

  • Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming. See more occupations related to this knowledge.

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Skills

  • Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Instructing — Teaching others how to do something. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do. See more occupations related to this skill.

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Abilities

  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns. See more occupations related to this ability.

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Work Activities

  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles). See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Detailed Work Activities

  • Research microbiological or chemical processes or structures. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Cultivate micro-organisms for study, testing, or medical preparations. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Analyze chemical compounds or substances. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Research diseases or parasites. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Supervise scientific or technical personnel. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inspect condition of natural environments. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor environmental impacts of production or development activities. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Analyze biological samples. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Prepare biological samples for testing or analysis. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Classify organisms based on their characteristics or behavior. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Operate laboratory or field equipment. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Examine characteristics or behavior of living organisms. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Develop new or advanced products or production methods. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Work Context

  • Electronic Mail — 82% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 76% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 77% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 90% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 71% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Telephone — 57% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 50% responded “Some freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Contact With Others — 45% responded “Constant contact with others.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — 59% responded “More than 40 hours.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — 59% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 50% responded “Some freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 48% responded “Very important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 43% responded “Very high responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 48% responded “Continually or almost continually.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Letters and Memos — 52% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Time Pressure — 41% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — 35% responded “Very important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 32% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Level of Competition — 48% responded “Highly competitive.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 45% responded “Moderate responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 48% responded “Moderate results.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Consequence of Error — 32% responded “Very serious.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 27% responded “Very important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Sitting — 55% responded “About half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Frequency of Decision Making — 43% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Public Speaking — 36% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Physical Proximity — 36% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).” See more occupations related to this work context.

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Job Zone

Title Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.
SVP Range (8.0 and above)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
36   Bachelor's degree
36   Post-doctoral training
9   Post-baccalaureate certificate Help

This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:

Life Sciences — Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences; Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences, Other; Microbiological Sciences and Immunology; Soil Sciences

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Credentials

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Interests

Interest code: IR

  • Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others. See more occupations related to this interest.

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Work Styles

  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.

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Work Values

  • Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy. See more occupations related to this work value.

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Related Occupations

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2014) $32.59 hourly, $67,790 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 20,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Slower than average (3% to 7%) Slower than average (3% to 7%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 7,100
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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