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Summary Report for:
25-4021.00 - Librarians

Administer libraries and perform related library services. Work in a variety of settings, including public libraries, educational institutions, museums, corporations, government agencies, law firms, non-profit organizations, and healthcare providers. Tasks may include selecting, acquiring, cataloguing, classifying, circulating, and maintaining library materials; and furnishing reference, bibliographical, and readers' advisory services. May perform in-depth, strategic research, and synthesize, analyze, edit, and filter information. May set up or work with databases and information systems to catalogue and access information.

Sample of reported job titles: Catalog Librarian, Children's Librarian, Librarian, Library Director, Library Media Specialist, Medical Librarian, Public Services Librarian, Reference Librarian, Serials Librarian, Technical Services Librarian

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks

  • Analyze patrons' requests to determine needed information and assist in furnishing or locating that information. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Search standard reference materials, including online sources and the Internet, to answer patrons' reference questions. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Teach library patrons basic computer skills, such as searching computerized databases. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Plan and teach classes on topics such as information literacy, library instruction, and technology use. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Review and evaluate materials, using book reviews, catalogs, faculty recommendations, and current holdings to select and order print, audio-visual, and electronic resources. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Locate unusual or unique information in response to specific requests. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Explain use of library facilities, resources, equipment, and services and provide information about library policies. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Plan and deliver client-centered programs and services, such as special services for corporate clients, storytelling for children, newsletters, or programs for special groups. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Respond to customer complaints, taking action as necessary. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop library policies and procedures. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Organize collections of books, publications, documents, audio-visual aids, and other reference materials for convenient access. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Confer with colleagues, faculty, and community members and organizations to conduct informational programs, make collection decisions, and determine library services to offer. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop, maintain, and troubleshoot information access aids, such as databases, annotated bibliographies, web pages, electronic pathfinders, software programs, and online tutorials. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Evaluate vendor products and performance, negotiate contracts, and place orders. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Direct and train library staff in duties, such as receiving, shelving, researching, cataloging, and equipment use. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Evaluate materials to determine outdated or unused items to be discarded. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Engage in professional development activities, such as taking continuing education classes and attending or participating in conferences, workshops, professional meetings, and associations. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Compile lists of books, periodicals, articles, and audio-visual materials on particular subjects. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Represent library or institution on internal and external committees. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Code, classify, and catalog books, publications, films, audio-visual aids, and other library materials based on subject matter or standard library classification systems. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop and maintain databases that provide information for library users. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Design information storage and retrieval systems and develop procedures for collecting, organizing, interpreting, and classifying information. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Keep up-to-date records of circulation and materials, maintain inventory, and correct cataloging errors. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Supervise daily library operations, budgeting, planning, and personnel activities, such as hiring, training, scheduling, and performance evaluations. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Negotiate contracts for library services, materials, and equipment. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Arrange for interlibrary loans of materials not available in a particular library. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Check books in and out of the library. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Collect and organize books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and other materials in specific fields, such as rare books, genealogy, or music. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Author or publish professional articles, internal documents, and instructional materials. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Write proposals for research or project grants. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Compile lists of overdue materials and notify borrowers that their materials are overdue. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Plan and participate in fundraising drives. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Assemble and arrange display materials. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Perform public relations work for the library, such as giving televised book reviews and community talks. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Provide input into the architectural planning of library facilities. See more occupations related to this task.

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Tools & Technology

Tools used in this occupation:

  • Bar code reader equipment — Barcode scanners See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Cargo trucks — Bookmobiles See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Cash registers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Desktop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital video disk players or recorders — Digital video disk DVD players See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Film projectors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microfiche or microfilm viewers — Microfiche readers; Microfilm readers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microfiche reader printers — Microfilm printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Notebook computers — Laptop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Personal computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photocopiers — Photocopying equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Public address systems — Public address PA systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanners See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Special purpose telephones — Multi-line telephone systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Video cassette players or recorders — Video cassette recorders VCR See more occupations related to this tool.

Technology used in this occupation:

  • Data base user interface and query software — Ex Libris Group Aleph; Microsoft Access; Saora Keepoint; Thomson Scientific Dialog (see all 13 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Desktop publishing software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Electronic mail software — Email software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Information retrieval or search software — Classification Web; LexisNexis software; Westlaw See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Internet browser software — Web browser software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Library software — Online Computer Library Center OCLC; RCL Software Media Library Manager; Surpass software; WorldCat * (see all 17 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Object or component oriented development software — Sun Microsystems Java See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Video creation and editing software — Apple iMovie See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver; Really Simple Syndication RSS; Wiki software; Yahoo Flickr (see all 7 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Web platform development software — Cascading Style Sheets CSS; Extensible HyperText Markup Language XHTML; Hypertext markup language HTML; PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor * See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word See more occupations related to this technology.

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

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Knowledge

  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media. See more occupations related to this knowledge.

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Skills

  • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Instructing — Teaching others how to do something. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior. See more occupations related to this skill.

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Abilities

  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity). See more occupations related to this ability.

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Work Activities

  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Detailed Work Activities

  • Develop instructional materials. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Advise educators on curricula, instructional methods, or policies. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Order instructional or library materials or equipment. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Write articles, books or other original materials in area of expertise. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Attend training sessions or professional meetings to develop or maintain professional knowledge. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Develop policies or procedures for archives, museums or libraries. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Organize informational materials. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Teach others to use technology or equipment. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Help patrons use library or archival resources. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Maintain operational records. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Write grant proposals. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Serve on institutional or departmental committees. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Maintain inventories of materials, equipment, or products. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Process library materials. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Direct department activities. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Develop library or archival databases. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Construct exhibits or parts of exhibits. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Search information sources to find specific data. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Confer with others to conduct or arrange operational activities. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Direct activities of subordinates. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Train staff members. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Classify materials according to standard systems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Select educational materials or equipment. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inspect materials or equipment to determine need for repair or replacement. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Promote educational institutions or programs. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Plan community programs or activities for the general public. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Negotiate purchases or contracts. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Compile specialized bibliographies or lists of materials. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Work Context

  • Electronic Mail — 95% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 94% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Telephone — 84% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 90% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 71% responded “A lot of freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Contact With Others — 72% responded “Constant contact with others.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 64% responded “A lot of freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 56% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Deal With External Customers — 57% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — 38% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Sitting — 43% responded “More than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 44% responded “Important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Frequency of Decision Making — 36% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 38% responded “Important results.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Physical Proximity — 27% responded “I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office).” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Letters and Memos — 49% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Degree of Automation — 51% responded “Highly automated.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 24% responded “Very important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 27% responded “Less than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Time Pressure — 35% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 37% responded “Moderate responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.

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Job Zone

Title Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.
SVP Range (8.0 and above)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
82   Master's degree
13   Bachelor's degree
2   Associate's degree

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Credentials

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Interests

Interest code: CSE

  • Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business. See more occupations related to this interest.

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Work Styles

  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. See more occupations related to this work style.

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Work Values

  • Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy. See more occupations related to this work value.

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Related Occupations

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2014) $27.01 hourly, $56,170 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 148,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Slower than average (3% to 7%) Slower than average (3% to 7%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 44,400
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Librarians external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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