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Summary Report for:
39-9021.00 - Personal Care Aides

Assist the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities with daily living activities at the person's home or in a care facility. Duties performed at a place of residence may include keeping house (making beds, doing laundry, washing dishes) and preparing meals. May provide assistance at non-residential care facilities. May advise families, the elderly, convalescents, and persons with disabilities regarding such things as nutrition, cleanliness, and household activities.

Sample of reported job titles: Caregiver, Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA), Home Care Aide, Home Health Care Provider, Medication Aide, Patient Care Assistant (PCA), Personal Care Aide, Personal Care Assistant (PCA), Personal Care Attendant (PCA), Resident Care Assistant (RCA)

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks

  • Administer bedside or personal care, such as ambulation or personal hygiene assistance. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Prepare and maintain records of client progress and services performed, reporting changes in client condition to manager or supervisor. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Perform healthcare-related tasks, such as monitoring vital signs and medication, under the direction of registered nurses or physiotherapists. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Participate in case reviews, consulting with the team caring for the client, to evaluate the client's needs and plan for continuing services. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Care for individuals or families during periods of incapacitation, family disruption, or convalescence, providing companionship, personal care, or help in adjusting to new lifestyles. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Perform housekeeping duties, such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes or dishes, or running errands. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Instruct or advise clients on issues such as household cleanliness, utilities, hygiene, nutrition, or infant care. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Plan, shop for, or prepare nutritious meals or assist families in planning, shopping for, or preparing nutritious meals. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Transport clients to locations outside the home, such as to physicians' offices or on outings, using a motor vehicle. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Provide clients with communication assistance, typing their correspondence or obtaining information for them. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Train family members to provide bedside care. See more occupations related to this task.

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Tools & Technology

Tools used in this occupation:

  • Adjustable widemouth pliers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Adjustable wrenches See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Alarm systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Back or lumbar or sacral orthopedic softgoods — Back braces See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Bedpans for general use — Bedpans See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Blood pressure cuff kits — Blood pressure cuffs See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Braille devices for the physically challenged — Braille printing software See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Canes or cane accessories — Canes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Crutches or crutch accessories — Crutches See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital camcorders or video cameras — Digital video cameras See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital cameras See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electric vibrators for rehabilitation or therapy — Mechanical vibrating massage devices See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic blood pressure units — Automatic blood pressure machines See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic medical thermometers — Electronic patient thermometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Glucose monitors or meters — Glucometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Hammers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Hearing aids for the physically challenged — Hearing aid devices See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Lower extremity prosthetic devices — Lower-body prosthetic devices See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Medical acoustic stethoscope or accessory — Mechanical stethoscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Oxygen therapy delivery system products accessories or its supplies — Oxygen delivery equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Paging controllers — Paging systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Patient bed or table scales for general use — Bed scales See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Patient lifts or accessories — Hoyer lifts; Mechanical patient lifts; Patient lifting devices See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Patient shifting boards or accessories — Transfer boards See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Personal computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Screwdrivers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Shower or bath chairs or seats for the physically challenged — Hydraulic tub seats; Shower chairs See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Specimen collection container — Specimen collection containers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Tablet computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Telecommunication devices TDD or teletypewriters TTY for the physically challenged — Telecommunication devices TDD; Teletypewriters TTY See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Upper extremity prosthetic devices — Upper-body prosthetic devices See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Vascular or compression apparel or support — Therapeutic elastic stockings See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Voice synthesizers for the physically challenged — Speech synthesizers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Walkers or rollators — Walkers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Walking braces See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Wheelchairs See more occupations related to this tool.

Technology used in this occupation:

  • Calendar and scheduling software — August Systems Private Duty Home-Care Agency Software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Data base reporting software — Mi-Co Mi-Forms software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Electronic mail software — Email software; Voltage SecureMail See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Optical character reader OCR or scanning software — Computer reading software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Spreadsheet software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Word processing software See more occupations related to this technology.

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Knowledge

  • Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders. See more occupations related to this knowledge.

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Skills

  • Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Instructing — Teaching others how to do something. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others. See more occupations related to this skill.

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Abilities

  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.

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Work Activities

  • Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Detailed Work Activities

  • Administer basic health care or medical treatments. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Maintain client information or service records. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Document client health or progress. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Prepare foods or meals. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor health or behavior of people or animals. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Drive vehicles to transport patrons. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Assist individuals with special needs. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Teach health or hygiene practices. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Provide counsel, comfort, or encouragement to individuals or families. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Perform housekeeping duties. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Develop plans for programs or services. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Work Context

  • Physical Proximity — 68% responded “Very close (near touching).” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Contact With Others — 70% responded “Constant contact with others.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 68% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 51% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 52% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Standing — 47% responded “Continually or almost continually.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 42% responded “A lot of freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Telephone — 44% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 60% responded “Very important results.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 66% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Frequency of Decision Making — 60% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Walking and Running — 42% responded “More than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 52% responded “Very high responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 32% responded “A lot of freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Time Pressure — 39% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — 35% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — 36% responded “More than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — 54% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Consequence of Error — 38% responded “Extremely serious.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Letters and Memos — 36% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 29% responded “Important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 48% responded “High responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 26% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.

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Job Zone

Title Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed
Education These occupations usually require a high school diploma.
Related Experience Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.
Job Training Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.
SVP Range (4.0 to < 6.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
54   High school diploma or equivalent Help
17   Less than high school diploma
17   Some college, no degree

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Credentials

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Interests

Interest code: SRC

  • Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow. See more occupations related to this interest.

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Work Styles

  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems. See more occupations related to this work style.

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Work Values

  • Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement. See more occupations related to this work value.

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Related Occupations

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2014) $9.83 hourly, $20,440 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 1,191,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Much faster than average (22% or higher) Much faster than average (22% or higher)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 666,000
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Personal Care Aides external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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