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Details Report for:
43-3021.02 - Billing, Cost, and Rate Clerks

Compile data, compute fees and charges, and prepare invoices for billing purposes. Duties include computing costs and calculating rates for goods, services, and shipment of goods; posting data; and keeping other relevant records. May involve use of computer or typewriter, calculator, and adding and bookkeeping machines.

Sample of reported job titles: Billing Clerk, Accountant, Accounts Payable Clerk, Billing Coordinator, Office Manager, Accounts Receivable Clerk, Administrative Assistant, Accounting Assistant, Billing Specialist, Contract Administrator

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
86   Core Verify accuracy of billing data and revise any errors.
83   Core Operate typing, adding, calculating, or billing machines.
82   Core Prepare itemized statements, bills, or invoices and record amounts due for items purchased or services rendered.
78   Core Review documents such as purchase orders, sales tickets, charge slips, or hospital records to compute fees or charges due.
77   Core Perform bookkeeping work, including posting data or keeping other records concerning costs of goods or services or the shipment of goods.
76   Core Keep records of invoices and support documents.
76   Core Resolve discrepancies in accounting records.
73   Core Type billing documents, shipping labels, credit memorandums, or credit forms, using typewriters or computers.
71   Core Contact customers to obtain or relay account information.
71   Core Compute credit terms, discounts, shipment charges, or rates for goods or services to complete billing documents.
69   Core Answer mail or telephone inquiries regarding rates, routing, or procedures.
74   Supplemental Track accumulated hours and dollar amounts charged to each client job to calculate client fees for professional services, such as legal or accounting services.
71   Supplemental Review compiled data on operating costs and revenues to set rates.
66   Supplemental Compile reports of cost factors, such as labor, production, storage, or equipment.
66   Supplemental Consult sources such as rate books, manuals, or insurance company representatives to determine specific charges or information such as rules, regulations, or government tax and tariff information.
59   Supplemental Update manuals when rates, rules, or regulations are amended.
58   Supplemental Estimate market value of products or services.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Accounting machines — Billing machines; Bookkeeping machines
Desktop calculator — 10-key calculators
Desktop computers
Laser fax machine — Laser facsimile machines
Photocopiers
Pocket calculator — Handheld calculators
Scanners

Technology used in this occupation:

Accounting software — Allscripts Professional PM; McKesson Medisoft software; Seasoft software; Thomson Reuters Elite Enterprise (see all 11 examples)
Customer relationship management CRM software
Data base user interface and query software — Database software; Microsoft Access; Practice management software PMS
Desktop publishing software
Document management software — File management systems
Financial analysis software — QuoteWerks software
Internet browser software — Web browser software
Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
Word processing software — Microsoft Word

See all T2 categories and examples

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
82   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
71   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
68   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
64   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
50   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
44   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
43   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
32   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
31   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
29   Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
28   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
28   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
27   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
24   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
20   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
16   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
16   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
11   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
  Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
  Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
  Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
  Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
  Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
  Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
  Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
  Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
  History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
  Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
  Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
  Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
 Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
72   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
63   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
63   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
56   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
56   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
56   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
53   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
50   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
50   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
50   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
47   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
47   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
44   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
44   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
41   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
38   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
35   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
35   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
31   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
28   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
25   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
25   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
10   Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
10   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
  Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
  Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
 Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
 Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
 Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
 Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
 Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
69   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
69   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
66   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
66   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
63   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
63   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
60   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
60   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
60   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
60   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
56   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
56   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
53   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
50   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
50   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
47   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
44   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
41   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
41   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
38   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
35   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
35   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
35   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
28   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
28   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
25   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
25   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
25   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
25   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
22   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
10   Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
  Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
  Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
 Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
 Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
 Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
 Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
 Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
 Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
 Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
 Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
 Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
 Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
 Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
 Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
81   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
76   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
76   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
  • Search files, databases or reference materials to obtain needed information.
70   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
70   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
  • Compile data or documentation.
  • Reconcile records of sales or other financial transactions.
  • Verify accuracy of financial or transactional data.
70   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
67   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
  • Analyze financial information.
64   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
60   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Maintain financial or account records.
  • Maintain operational records.
  • Prepare documentation for contracts, transactions, or regulatory compliance.
  • Prepare informational or reference materials.
60   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
  • Type documents.
57   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
56   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Calculate costs of goods or services.
  • Calculate shipping costs.
54   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
  • Discuss account status or activity with customers or patrons.
51   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
46   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
  • Explain regulations, policies, or procedures.
43   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
39   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
36   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
36   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
35   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
34   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
29   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
29   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
24   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
23   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
20   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
19   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
19   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
15   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
15   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
14   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
14   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
12   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
11   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
11   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
  Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
  Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
  • Operate office equipment.
  Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
  Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
  Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
  Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Context
Work Context
99   Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
99   Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
98   Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
90   Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
85   Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
85   Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
81   Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
81   Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
81   Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
80   Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
79   Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
77   Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
77   Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
75   Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
72   Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?
67   Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
65   Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
64   Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
62   Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
59   Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
54   Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
49   Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
47   Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
45   Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
45   Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
42   Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
42   Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
41   Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
33   Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
30   Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
25   Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
23   Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
20   In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
20   Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
17   Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
17   Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
16   Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
15   Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
14   Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
13   Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
13   Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
12   Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
12   Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
12   Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
11   Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
  Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
  Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
  Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
  Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
  Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
  Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
  Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
  Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
  Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
  Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
  In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
  Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed
Education Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.
Related Experience Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include food service managers, electricians, agricultural technicians, legal secretaries, interviewers, and insurance sales agents.
SVP Range (6.0 to < 7.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
36   High school diploma or equivalent Help
25   Associate's degree
18   Bachelor's degree

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
100   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
67   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
33   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
22   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
22   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
 Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
92   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
90   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
86   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
85   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
80   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
78   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
78   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
78   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
78   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
76   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
72   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
69   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
66   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
66   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
60   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
56   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
61   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
50   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
50   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
33   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
33   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
28   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

13-2082.00 Tax Preparers
23-2011.00 Paralegals and Legal Assistants
43-3031.00 Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
43-3051.00 Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks
43-4011.00 Brokerage Clerks
43-4071.00 File Clerks
43-4161.00 Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping
43-6011.00 Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants Bright Outlook
43-6012.00 Legal Secretaries
43-9041.01 Insurance Claims Clerks

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Wages & Employment Trends

National

Median wages data collected from Billing and Posting Clerks.
Employment data collected from Billing and Posting Clerks.
Industry data collected from Billing and Posting Clerks.

Median wages (2012) $16.08 hourly, $33,450 annual
Employment (2012) 514,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Faster than average (15% to 21%) Faster than average (15% to 21%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 187,800
Top industries (2012)
Health Care and Social Assistance (41% employed in this sector)

State & National

          CareerOneStop

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

Find Jobs
for Billing, Cost, and Rate Clerks

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State & National Job Banks

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Financial Clerks external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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