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Summary Report for:
19-1021.00 - Biochemists and Biophysicists

Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena. May conduct research to further understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms.

Sample of reported job titles: Analytical Research Chemist, Chief Scientific Officer, Director of the Biophysics Facility, Laboratory Director, Professor of Physics/Researcher in Biophysics, Research Assistant, Research Associate, Research Scientist, Scientist

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks

  • Study physical principles of living cells or organisms and their electrical or mechanical energy, applying methods and knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry, or biology. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Share research findings by writing scientific articles or by making presentations at scientific conferences. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Prepare reports or recommendations, based upon research outcomes. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Teach or advise undergraduate or graduate students or supervise their research. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Manage laboratory teams or monitor the quality of a team's work. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Isolate, analyze, or synthesize vitamins, hormones, allergens, minerals, or enzymes and determine their effects on body functions. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Determine the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop new methods to study the mechanisms of biological processes. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Study the mutations in organisms that lead to cancer or other diseases. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Study the chemistry of living processes, such as cell development, breathing and digestion, or living energy changes, such as growth, aging, or death. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Investigate the nature, composition, or expression of genes or research how genetic engineering can impact these processes. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Design or perform experiments with equipment such as lasers, accelerators, or mass spectrometers. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Study spatial configurations of submicroscopic molecules, such as proteins, using x-rays or electron microscopes. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop or execute tests to detect diseases, genetic disorders, or other abnormalities. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Produce pharmaceutically or industrially useful proteins, using recombinant DNA technology. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Research the chemical effects of substances, such as drugs, serums, hormones, or food, on tissues or vital processes. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Examine the molecular or chemical aspects of immune system functioning. See more occupations related to this task.

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Tools & Technology

Tools used in this occupation:

  • Amino acid analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Analytical balances — Mettler balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Benchtop centrifuges — Continuous flow centrifuges; Cytospin centrifuges; Megafuge centrifuges; Tabletop centrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Binocular light compound microscopes — Large upright microscopes; Transillumination microscopes; Video enhanced differential interference contrast microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Calorimeters — Differential scanning calorimeters; Isothermal titration calorimeters ITC; Microcalorimeters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Camera controllers — Video positioning equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Chemistry analyzers — Hemoglobin analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Chilling units or cold water circulators — Circulating water cooling systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Cryogenic or liquid nitrogen freezers — Biofreezers; Cryogenic freezers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Deoxyribonucleic sequence analyzers — Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequencers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Desktop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital camcorders or video cameras — Phosphorimager video cameras See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dropping pipettes — Pipettes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dry baths or heating blocks — Heat blocks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dry wall single chamber carbon dioxide incubators — Carbon dioxide CO2 incubators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electroencephalograph EEG or accessories — Electroencephalography EEG equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electron guns — Phosphorimagers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electron microscopes — Cryomicroscopes; X ray microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic toploading balances — Sartorius balances; Top-loading electronic balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electrophoresis system power supplies — Electrophoresis power supplies See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Flame ionization analyzers — Flame ionization detectors FID See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Forced air or mechanical convection general purpose incubators — Heat incubators; Incubators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Freeze dryers or lyopholizers — Flexi-dry lyophilizers; Freeze dryers; Vacuum freezers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Fume hoods or cupboards — Chemical fume hoods See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gamma counters — Auto gamma counters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gas chromatographs — Gas chromatographs GC See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gel boxes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Gel documentation systems — Automated electrophoresis equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Heat tracing equipment — Thermal imagers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Heating mantles or tapes — Heating mantles See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Hematology or chemistry mixers — Peptide synthesizers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • High pressure liquid chromatograph chromatography — High-pressure liquid chromatographs See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Homogenizers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Infrared spectrometers — Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Injectors — Microinjectors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Instrumentation for capillary electrophoresis — Capillary electrophoresis equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Inverted microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ion analyzers — Ionometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Irradiation gamma sources — Gamma ray irradiators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory adapters or connectors or fittings — Glassware adaptors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory balances — Balances; Specific gravity balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory beakers — Beakers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory flasks — Erlenmeyer flasks See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory funnels — Filtering funnels; Funnels See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory graduated cylinders — Graduated cylinders See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory heat exchange condensers — Glassware condensers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory hotplates — Hot plates See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory mechanical convection ovens — Laboratory convection ovens See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory vacuum pumps See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laminar flow cabinets or stations — Laminar flow hoods See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laser printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Lasers — Argon lasers; Laser tweezers; Sapphire lasers; Solid state diode lasers (see all 6 examples) See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Light scattering equipment — Laser Doppler zeta potential analyzers; Laser particle sizers; Light scattering devices; Multi-angle elastic-light scattering systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Liquid scintillation counters — Scintillation counters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Mainframe computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Manual or electronic hematology differential cell counters — Cell sorters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Mass spectrometers — Multichannel detectors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Medical computed tomography CT or CAT scanners or tubes — Computerized axial tomography CAT scan equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Medical imaging wet darkroom or daylight processors — Automatic x ray film developers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Medical magnetic resonance imaging MRI scanners — Medical magnetic resonance imaging MRI equipment; Medical magnetic resonance imaging MRI microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Medical positron emission tomography PET units — Positron emission tomography PET scanners See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Medical x ray darkroom equipment or supplies — Darkroom equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microbiology analyzers — Flow cytometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microcentrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microplate readers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microscope slides See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microtomes — Cryocut microtomes; Cryostat tissue microtomes; Ultramicrotomes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Mobile or transportable medical linear accelerators — Linear accelerators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Multipurpose or general test tubes — Test tubes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Notebook computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectrometers — Liquid nuclear magnetic resonance NMR equipment; Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopes; Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance NMR equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Optical beamsplitters — Dichroic beamsplitters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Orbital shakers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Orbital shaking water baths — Shaking waterbaths See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Osmometers — Basic vapor pressure osmometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Paramagnetic susceptibility analyzers — Microsusceptometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Pasteur or transfer pipettes — Pasteur pipettes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Personal computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • pH meters — Microphysiometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photo attachments for microscopes — Charge-coupled device CCD cameras See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Piezo electric crystals — Magnetic piconewton-force transducers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Plotter printers — Plotters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Polarimeters — Spectropolarimeters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Polarizing microscopes — Brewster angle microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Pressure indicators — Langmuir balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Protein analyzers — Protein sequencers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Radiobiological effect microdosimeters — Microdosimeters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Reactors or fermenters or digesters — High-pressure high-temperature reactors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Refrigerated and heated reach in environmental or growth chambers — Growth chambers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Refrigerated benchtop centrifuges — Refrigerated centrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Rheometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Robotic or automated liquid handling systems — Automatic pipetters; Liquid handling robots See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Safety hoods — Biological safety hoods See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanners See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanning electron microscopes — Scanning electron microscopes SEM See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanning light or spinning disk or laser scanning microscopes — Confocal microscopes; Near-field light microscopes; Scanning laser microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanning probe microscopes — Atomic force microscopes; Nanoscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Shaking incubators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Signal conditioners — Power amplifiers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Signal generators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrofluorimeters or fluorimeters — Fluorescence spectroscopes; Spectrofluorimeters; Ultraviolet UV spectroscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrometers — Circular dichroism spectroscopes; Laser induced temperature jump nanosecond relaxation spectrometer systems; Mossbauer spectroscopes; Raman difference spectrometers (see all 7 examples) See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrophotometers — Stopped-flow spectrophotometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Standard fermentation units — Fermenters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Steam autoclaves or sterilizers — Autoclaves See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Tissue processors — Vibratome tissue sectioning systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Transilluminators — Ultraviolet UV transilluminators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Transmission electron microscopes — Cryotransmission electron microscopes; Transmission electron microscopes TEM See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Tweezers — Magnetic tweezers; Optical tweezers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultra violet water purification units — Water purification units See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultracentrifuges — Analytical ultracentrifuges See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultrasonic cleaning equipment — Ultrasonic cleaners See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultrasonic disintegrators — Sonicators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Vacuum or centrifugal concentrators — Sample concentrators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Viscosimeters — Viscometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Water baths See more occupations related to this tool.
  • X ray diffraction equipment — X ray crystallography equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • X ray generators — Rotating anode X ray generators; Synchrotrons See more occupations related to this tool.

Technology used in this occupation:

  • Analytical or scientific software — Accelrys QAUNTA; Fujitsu BioMedCache; Wavefunction Titan; Yet another scientific artificial reality application YASARA software (see all 40 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Computer aided design CAD software — Accelrys Insight II; ChemInnovation Software Chem 4-D See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Data base user interface and query software — eNotebook software; Sequence database software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Data mining software — Golden Helix ChemTree; Golden Helix HelixTree See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Electronic mail software — Email software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop software; GE Healthcare ImageQuant TL; Molecular Devices Corporation MetaFluor; Molecular Simulations WebLab ViewerPro (see all 11 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Information retrieval or search software — Molecular Networks GmbH Biochemical Pathways See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Internet browser software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Inventory management software — ItemTracker software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Object or component oriented development software — Practical extraction and reporting language Perl; Python See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Operating system software — Linux See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word See more occupations related to this technology.

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Knowledge

  • Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services. See more occupations related to this knowledge.

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Skills

  • Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Instructing — Teaching others how to do something. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do. See more occupations related to this skill.

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Abilities

  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures. See more occupations related to this ability.

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Work Activities

  • Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles). See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Detailed Work Activities

  • Administer standardized physical or psychological tests. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Research microbiological or chemical processes or structures. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Research diseases or parasites. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Research genetic characteristics or expression. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Supervise scientific or technical personnel. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Instruct college students in physical or life sciences. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Analyze biological samples. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Prepare compounds or solutions for products or testing. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Research methods to improve food products. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Develop new or advanced products or production methods. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Develop biological research methods. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Work Context

  • Electronic Mail — 95% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 95% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — 91% responded “More than 40 hours.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 68% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 62% responded “A lot of freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 68% responded “A lot of freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 59% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Level of Competition — 41% responded “Extremely competitive.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 41% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 36% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Telephone — 41% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Contact With Others — 50% responded “Contact with others most of the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 62% responded “High responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 32% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Sitting — 50% responded “More than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Letters and Memos — 36% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Consequence of Error — 24% responded “Extremely serious.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 50% responded “Important results.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Time Pressure — 45% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 41% responded “More than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 52% responded “Moderate responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.

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Job Zone

Title Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.
SVP Range (8.0 and above)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
41   Doctoral degree
32   Post-doctoral training
18   Bachelor's degree

This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:

Chemistry — Soil Chemistry and Physics
Life Sciences — Biochemistry; Biophysics; Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences; Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences, Other; Soil Sciences
Physics/Astronomy — Soil Chemistry and Physics

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Credentials

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Interests

Interest code: IAR

  • Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others. See more occupations related to this interest.

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Work Styles

  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. See more occupations related to this work style.

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Work Values

  • Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions. See more occupations related to this work value.

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Related Occupations

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2014) $40.84 hourly, $84,940 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 29,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Faster than average (15% to 21%) Faster than average (15% to 21%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 13,700
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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