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Summary Report for:
27-4021.00 - Photographers

Photograph people, landscapes, merchandise, or other subjects, using digital or film cameras and equipment. May develop negatives or use computer software to produce finished images and prints. Includes scientific photographers, aerial photographers, and photojournalists.

Sample of reported job titles: Advertising Photographer, Commercial Photographer, Newspaper Photographer, Owner/Photographer, Photo Editor, Photographer, Photojournalist, Portrait Photographer, Sports Photographer, Studio Owner

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks

  • Use traditional or digital cameras, along with a variety of equipment such as tripods, filters, and flash attachments. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Determine desired images and picture composition, selecting and adjusting subjects, equipment, and lighting to achieve desired effects. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Adjust apertures, shutter speeds, and camera focus based on a combination of factors such as lighting, field depth, subject motion, film type, and film speed. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Create artificial light, using flashes and reflectors. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Manipulate and enhance scanned or digital images to create desired effects, using computers and specialized software. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Transfer photographs to computers for editing, archiving, and electronic transmission. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Determine project goals, locations, and equipment needs by studying assignments and consulting with clients or advertising staff. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Review sets of photographs to select the best work. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Perform general office duties such as scheduling appointments, keeping books, and ordering supplies. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Estimate or measure light levels, distances, and numbers of exposures needed, using measuring devices and formulas. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Test equipment prior to use to ensure that it is in good working order. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Set up, mount, or install photographic equipment and cameras. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Select and assemble equipment and required background properties, according to subjects, materials, and conditions. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Take pictures of individuals, families, and small groups, either in studio or on location. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Direct activities of workers who are setting up photographic equipment. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Perform maintenance tasks necessary to keep equipment working properly. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Produce computer-readable, digital images from film, using flatbed scanners and photofinishing laboratories. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop and print exposed film, using chemicals, touchup tools, and developing and printing equipment. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Enhance, retouch, and resize photographs and negatives, using airbrushing and other techniques. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Develop visual aids and charts for use in lectures or to present evidence in court. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Load and unload film. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Employ a variety of specialized photographic materials and techniques, including infrared and ultraviolet films, macro photography, photogrammetry and sensitometry. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Engage in research to develop new photographic procedures and materials. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Write photograph captions. See more occupations related to this task.

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Tools & Technology

Tools used in this occupation:

  • Atmospheric effect apparatus — Fog machines See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Bubble machine — Bubble machines See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Camera controllers — Wireless flash triggers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Camera enclosures or covers — Sound blimps See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Camera flashes or lighting — Camera flash attachments; Focus assists; Softboxes; Studio strobe flashes (see all 5 examples) See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Camera lens — Macro lenses; Telephoto lenses; Zoom lenses See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Camera lens cleaners — Camera cleaning brushes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Camera lens filter — Graduated neutral density GND filters; Haze filters; White balancing lens filters; Wide angle lenses (see all 6 examples) See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Camera tripods — Camera positioning tripods See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Compact disc CD or labeling printers — Optical media printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Contact printer — Contact print frames; Negative proofers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital cameras — Digital still cameras See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital image printers — Digital photo printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Digital pen — Digital pens See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dimmers and accessories — Dimmers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Dye sublimination printers — Dye sublimation printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic viewfinder — Optical viewfinders See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Film driers — Film drying cabinets See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Film washers — Force film washers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Flash memory storage card — Flash memory data storage devices See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Global positioning system GPS receiver — Global positioning system GPS devices See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Graphics tablets See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Handheld thermometer — Darkroom thermometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Inkjet printers — Computer inkjet printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Label making machines — Label printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laser printers — Computer laser printers; Large format printers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Lightmeters — Incident light meters; Reflected light meters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Loupes — Magnifier loupes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Multimedia projectors — Special effects projectors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Notebook computers — Laptop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Personal computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photo print dryer — Electric print dryers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photo print washer — Rapid photo print washers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photographic enlargers — Image enlargers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photographic timer — Darkroom timers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photography light reflector — Board reflectors; Lamp reflectors; Snoots See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanners — Film scanners; Flatbed scanners See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Still cameras — Film cameras See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Tablet computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Wireless network interface cards — Mobile adapters See more occupations related to this tool.

Technology used in this occupation:

  • Accounting software — Blinkbid; Intuit QuickBooks software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Calendar and scheduling software — Genbook See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Data base user interface and query software — Cradoc fotoBiz; Microsoft Access; SuccessWare; Tave Studio Manager (see all 12 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Development environment software — Adobe Systems Adobe Creative Suite software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Electronic mail software — Email software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop Lightroom; Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Instant messaging software — Twitter * See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Internet browser software — Web browser software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Web page creation and editing software — Facebook *; WordPress * See more occupations related to this technology.

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

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Knowledge

  • Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources. See more occupations related to this knowledge.

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Skills

  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Instructing — Teaching others how to do something. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others. See more occupations related to this skill.

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Abilities

  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person. See more occupations related to this ability.

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Work Activities

  • Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Detailed Work Activities

  • Construct distinctive physical objects for artistic, functional, or commercial purposes. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Confer with clients to determine needs. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Operate still or video cameras or related equipment. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Determine technical requirements of productions or projects. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Set up still or video cameras or related equipment. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Select materials or props. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Write informational material. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Apply finishes to artwork, crafts, or displays. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Create computer-generated graphics or animation. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Convert data among multiple digital or analog formats. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Maintain inventories of materials, equipment, or products. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Maintain recording or broadcasting equipment. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Review art or design materials. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coordinate activities of production personnel. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Maintain records, documents, or other files. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Obtain copyrights or other legal permissions. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Arrange artwork, products, or props. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Research new technologies. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Work Context

  • Electronic Mail — 88% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Telephone — 72% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Level of Competition — 64% responded “Extremely competitive.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 44% responded “A lot of freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Contact With Others — 58% responded “Contact with others most of the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — 64% responded “More than 40 hours.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 42% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Time Pressure — 60% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 52% responded “Some freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 38% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Deal With External Customers — 40% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 56% responded “Very important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Physical Proximity — 36% responded “Very close (near touching).” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 32% responded “More than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 40% responded “Important results.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Letters and Memos — 60% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Standing — 60% responded “About half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 56% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 44% responded “Important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Frequency of Decision Making — 36% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 36% responded “High responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Work Schedules — 80% responded “Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration).” See more occupations related to this work context.

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Job Zone

Title Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed
Education Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.
Related Experience Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include food service managers, electricians, agricultural technicians, legal secretaries, occupational therapy assistants, and medical assistants.
SVP Range (6.0 to < 7.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
28   High school diploma or equivalent Help
20   Associate's degree
16   Less than high school diploma

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Credentials

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Interests

Interest code: AR

  • Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others. See more occupations related to this interest.

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Work Styles

  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems. See more occupations related to this work style.

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Work Values

  • Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement. See more occupations related to this work value.

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Related Occupations

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2014) $14.66 hourly, $30,490 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 136,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Slower than average (3% to 7%) Slower than average (3% to 7%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 20,300
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Photographers external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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