Summary Report for:
29-2011.02 - Cytotechnologists
Stain, mount, and study cells to detect evidence of cancer, hormonal abnormalities, and other pathological conditions following established standards and practices.
Sample of reported job titles: Cytology Laboratory Manager (Cytology Lab Manager); Cytology Manager; Cytology Supervisor; Cytotechnologist; Cytotechnologist Supervisor; Cytotechnologist/Cytology Supervisor; Cytotechnologist/Histotechnologist; Senior Cytotechnologist; Staff Cytotechnologist; Technical Specialist, Cytology
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Submit slides with abnormal cell structures to pathologists for further examination.
- Examine cell samples to detect abnormalities in the color, shape, or size of cellular components and patterns.
- Provide patient clinical data or microscopic findings to assist pathologists in the preparation of pathology reports.
- Document specimens by verifying patients' and specimens' information.
- Maintain effective laboratory operations by adhering to standards of specimen collection, preparation, or laboratory safety.
- Prepare and analyze samples, such as Papanicolaou (PAP) smear body fluids and fine needle aspirations (FNAs), to detect abnormal conditions.
- Examine specimens using microscopes to evaluate specimen quality.
- Assist pathologists or other physicians to collect cell samples such as by fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies.
- Assign tasks or coordinate task assignments to ensure adequate performance of laboratory activities.
- Adjust, maintain, or repair laboratory equipment such as microscopes.
- Attend continuing education programs that address laboratory issues.
- Examine specimens to detect abnormal hormone conditions.
- Prepare cell samples by applying special staining techniques, such as chromosomal staining, to differentiate cells or cell components.
- Perform karyotyping or organizing of chromosomes according to standardized ideograms.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Analytical balances
- Automated cover slipping equipment — Automatic coverslippers
- Benchtop centrifuges — Centrifuges; Cytocentrifuges
- Binocular light compound microscopes — Compound light microscopes; Laboratory binocular microscopes
- Centrifuge tubes
- Desktop computers
- Digital cameras
- Distillation pipings or columns or fittings — Distilled water units
- Dropping pipettes — Glass pipettes
- Fluorescent microscopes
- General purpose refrigerators or refrigerator freezers — Laboratory refrigerators
- Histological staining apparatus — Automatic slide stainers
- Histology paraffin — Paraffin dispensers
- Laboratory beakers — Beakers
- Laboratory flasks — Conical flasks; Round bottom flasks
- Laboratory funnels — Funnels
- Laboratory graduated cylinders — Measuring cylinders
- Laboratory heaters — Radiant heaters
- Magnetic stirrers — Magnetic shakers
- Magnifiers — Stereoscopic magnifiers
- Microbiology analyzers — Flow cytometers
- Microscope slide cabinets — Slide filing cabinets
- Personal computers
- Scanning light or spinning disk or laser scanning microscopes — Confocal microscopes
- Steam autoclaves or sterilizers — Autoclaves; Electronic sterilizers
- Stereo or dissecting light microscopes — Stereo microscopes
- Tissue processors — Automatic tissue processors
- Vacuum tube needles — Fine needles
- Water baths — Laboratory water baths
Technology used in this occupation:
- Medical software — Aspyra CyberLAB; CPSI CPSI System; Fortius Lab Systems Clinical LIS; Sunquest Information Systems Sunquest Laboratory (see all 33 examples)
- Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
- Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
Detailed Work Activities
- Analyze laboratory specimens to detect abnormalities or other problems.
- Communicate test or assessment results to medical professionals.
- Prepare biological specimens for laboratory analysis.
- Verify accuracy of patient information.
- Adjust settings or positions of medical equipment.
- Follow protocols or regulations for healthcare activities.
- Verify that medical activities or operations meet standards.
- Test biological specimens to gather information about patient conditions.
- Maintain medical laboratory equipment.
- Assist healthcare practitioners during examinations or treatments.
- Repair medical facility equipment.
- Maintain medical or professional knowledge.
- Supervise technical medical personnel.
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 88% responded “Extremely important.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 96% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 77% responded “Extremely important.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 69% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 58% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Electronic Mail — 65% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 69% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Time Pressure — 62% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 58% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 50% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Exposed to Disease or Infections — 62% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 69% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 58% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Consequence of Error — 46% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 42% responded “Very important results.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 42% responded “Some freedom.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 31% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 31% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 48% responded “Very important.”
- Contact With Others — 35% responded “Occasional contact with others.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 35% responded “Every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 96% responded “40 hours.”
- Letters and Memos — 31% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
Interest code: IR
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wages data collected from Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists.
Employment data collected from Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists.
Industry data collected from Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists.
|Median wages (2014)||$28.57 hourly, $59,430 annual|
|Employment (2012)||164,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Average (8% to 14%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||65,800|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.