Summary Report for:
49-2095.00 - Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay
Inspect, test, repair, or maintain electrical equipment in generating stations, substations, and in-service relays.
Sample of reported job titles: Apparatus Lineman, Electrical and Instrumentation Technician (E & I Technician), Heavy Equipment Technician, Instrument and Control Technician (I & C Technician), Meter / Relay Technician, Relay Technician, Substation Electrician, Substation Mechanic, Substation Technician, Wireman
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Construct, test, maintain, and repair substation relay and control systems.
- Inspect and test equipment and circuits to identify malfunctions or defects, using wiring diagrams and testing devices such as ohmmeters, voltmeters, or ammeters.
- Consult manuals, schematics, wiring diagrams, and engineering personnel to troubleshoot and solve equipment problems and to determine optimum equipment functioning.
- Notify facility personnel of equipment shutdowns.
- Open and close switches to isolate defective relays, performing adjustments or repairs.
- Prepare and maintain records detailing tests, repairs, and maintenance.
- Analyze test data to diagnose malfunctions, to determine performance characteristics of systems, or to evaluate effects of system modifications.
- Test insulators and bushings of equipment by inducing voltage across insulation, testing current, and calculating insulation loss.
- Repair, replace, and clean equipment and components such as circuit breakers, brushes, and commutators.
- Disconnect voltage regulators, bolts, and screws, and connect replacement regulators to high-voltage lines.
- Schedule and supervise the construction and testing of special devices and the implementation of unique monitoring or control systems.
- Run signal quality and connectivity tests for individual cables, and record results.
- Schedule and supervise splicing or termination of cables in color-code order.
- Test oil in circuit breakers and transformers for dielectric strength, refilling oil periodically.
- Maintain inventories of spare parts for all equipment, requisitioning parts as necessary.
- Set forms and pour concrete footings for installation of heavy equipment.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Adjustable wrenches — Adjustable hand wrenches
- Alternating current AC arc welder — Alternating current AC electric welders
- Ammeters — Bench ammeters; Clamp ammeters; Volt-ammeters
- Bench drilling machine — Bench drills
- Bench vises
- Calipers — Vernier calipers
- Claw hammer — Nailing hammers
- Cold chisels — Hand guard cold chisels
- Die stocks — Heavy duty die stocks
- Drill bit set — Twist drill bits
- Electronics pliers — Diagonal cutting electronics pliers
- Fire extinguishers — Electrical fire extinguishers
- Gas welding or brazing or cutting apparatus — Oxyacetylene welders
- Hacksaw — Heavy-duty hacksaws
- Insulation resistance meters — Insulation resistance testers
- Jigsaw — Portable electric jigsaws
- Ladders — Stepladders
- Locking pliers — Multigrip pliers; Vise grip pliers
- Manlift or personnel lift — Lifting platforms
- Metal shearing machine — Sheet metal guillotines
- Micrometers — Digital micrometers
- Multimeters — Digital multimeters
- Ohmmeters — Analog ohmmeters; Digital ohmmeters
- Oscilloscopes — Digital oscilloscopes
- Phasemeters — Phase rotation indicators
- Portable data input terminals — Handheld dataloggers
- Power drills — Portable electric drills
- Power grinders — Portable electric grinders
- Power riveter — Pop riveters
- Power saws — Portable electric saws
- Precision file — Precision file sets
- Pullers — Bearing pullers
- Punches or nail sets or drifts — Pin punches
- Radiation detectors — Radiation meters
- Ratchets — Ratchet sets
- Reamer — Precision reamers
- Relay tester — Relay test sets
- Saws — Wood saws
- Screwdrivers — Slot screwdrivers
- Sockets — Socket wrenches
- Soldering iron — Soldering guns
- Spanner wrenches — Adjustable pin spanner wrenches
- T handle tap wrenches
- Thermal imager — Handheld thermal imagers
- Threading taps — Tap sets
- Tinners snips — Tin snips
- Voltage and current meter calibrator — Universal calibrators
- Voltage or current meters — Bench voltmeters; Light emitting diode LED voltage tester; Neon voltage testers; Series solenoid voltage testers
Technology used in this occupation:
- Analytical or scientific software — Fluke Corporation FlukeView Forms; OMICRON Test Universe
- Compliance software — Megger PowerDB
- Computer aided design CAD software — Autodesk AutoCAD software
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
- Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
- Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
- Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
- Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
Detailed Work Activities
- Supervise employees.
- Order materials, supplies, or equipment.
- Clean equipment, parts, or tools to repair or maintain them in good working order.
- Confer with coworkers to coordinate work activities.
- Document operational activities.
- Test electrical circuits or components for proper functioning.
- Control power supply connections.
- Test electrical equipment or systems to ensure proper functioning.
- Repair electronic equipment.
- Maintain repair or maintenance records.
- Read technical information needed to perform maintenance or repairs.
- Inspect equipment to locate or identify electrical problems.
- Maintain inventories of materials, equipment, or products.
- Repair electrical components.
- Repair electrical circuits or wiring.
- Connect electrical components or equipment.
- Test fluids to identify contamination or other problems.
- Schedule repair, installation or maintenance activities.
- Analyze test or performance data to assess equipment operation.
- Document test results.
- Install structural foundations.
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 99% responded “Every day.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 78% responded “Every day.”
- Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 68% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 79% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 65% responded “Extremely important.”
- Telephone — 57% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 54% responded “Some freedom.”
- In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — 66% responded “Every day.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 46% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — 48% responded “Every day.”
- Physical Proximity — 79% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Consequence of Error — 69% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Contact With Others — 51% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 38% responded “Extremely important.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 48% responded “More than half the time.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 44% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 37% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — 57% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 40% responded “Moderate results.”
- Spend Time Standing — 54% responded “More than half the time.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 53% responded “Some freedom.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 36% responded “Extremely important.”
- Outdoors, Under Cover — 30% responded “Every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 40% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 35% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 41% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — 53% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 75% responded “40 hours.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 44% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 52% responded “Important.”
- Time Pressure — 43% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 32% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
- Letters and Memos — 37% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
- Deal With External Customers — 28% responded “Fairly important.”
- Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — 59% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Exposed to High Places — 34% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
|Title||Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.|
|Related Experience||Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include food service managers, electricians, agricultural technicians, legal secretaries, occupational therapy assistants, and medical assistants.|
|SVP Range||(6.0 to < 7.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|14||Some college, no degree|
Interest code: RC
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2015)||$35.49 hourly, $73,810 annual|
|Employment (2014)||23,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2014-2024)||Decline (-2% or lower)|
|Projected job openings (2014-2024)||3,900|
|Top industries (2014)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 wage data and 2014-2024 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Electrical and electronics installers and repairers . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition.