Summary Report for:
51-3091.00 - Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders
Operate or tend food or tobacco roasting, baking, or drying equipment, including hearth ovens, kiln driers, roasters, char kilns, and vacuum drying equipment.
Sample of reported job titles: Bakery Utility Person, Bean Roaster, Coffee Roaster, Dryer Operator, Machine Operator, Oven Operator, Roaster, Roaster Operator, Roasterman, Roastmaster
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Observe, feel, taste, or otherwise examine products during and after processing to ensure conformance to standards.
- Observe temperature, humidity, pressure gauges, and product samples and adjust controls, such as thermostats and valves, to maintain prescribed operating conditions for specific stages.
- Operate or tend equipment that roasts, bakes, dries, or cures food items such as cocoa and coffee beans, grains, nuts, and bakery products.
- Set temperature and time controls, light ovens, burners, driers, or roasters, and start equipment, such as conveyors, cylinders, blowers, driers, or pumps.
- Observe flow of materials and listen for machine malfunctions, such as jamming or spillage, and notify supervisors if corrective actions fail.
- Record production data, such as weight and amount of product processed, type of product, and time and temperature of processing.
- Weigh or measure products, using scale hoppers or scale conveyors.
- Read work orders to determine quantities and types of products to be baked, dried, or roasted.
- Take product samples during or after processing for laboratory analyses.
- Fill or remove product from trays, carts, hoppers, or equipment, using scoops, peels, or shovels, or by hand.
- Open valves, gates, or chutes or use shovels to load or remove products from ovens or other equipment.
- Clean equipment with steam, hot water, and hoses.
- Clear or dislodge blockages in bins, screens, or other equipment, using poles, brushes, or mallets.
- Push racks or carts to transfer products to storage, cooling stations, or the next stage of processing.
- Start conveyors to move roasted grain to cooling pans and agitate grain with rakes as blowers force air through perforated bottoms of pans.
- Smooth out products in bins, pans, trays, or conveyors, using rakes or shovels.
- Install equipment, such as spray units, cutting blades, or screens, using hand tools.
- Test products for moisture content, using moisture meters.
- Signal coworkers to synchronize flow of materials.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Belt conveyors — Conveyor bakers
- Blowers — Hot air blowers
- Carts — Material moving carts
- Commercial use plastic shovels — Food handling shovels
- Commercial use scoops — Flood handling scoops
- Cooking machinery — Baking equipment; Melting tanks
- Cooling machine — Cooling machine pans
- Dissolved oxygen meters — Dissolved oxygen sensors
- Drying racks — Tobacco hanging racks
- Food drying equipment — Box barns; Conveyor dryers; Tobacco boxes; Vacuum food drying equipment (see all 8 examples)
- Furnaces — Gas furnaces; Oil furnaces
- Heat exchangers — Heat exchanger conversion kits; Heat exchanger systems
- Hopper scale — Automatic hopper scales
- Humidifiers — Humidification systems
- Hydraulic pumps — Dough pumps
- Hygrometers — Humidity sensors
- Loading equipment — Rack loaders
- Metallic bins — Food storage bins
- Moisture meters
- Portable data input terminals — Handheld dataloggers
- Pressure gauge — Equipment pressure gauges
- Remote reading thermometers — Remote thermometers
- Roasting machinery — Centrifugal coffee roasters; Roasting equipment; Solid drum coffee roasters; Tangential coffee roasters (see all 9 examples)
- Roller conveyors — Scale conveyors
- Spectrometers — Photospectrometers
- Temperature gauge — Equipment temperature gauges
- Thermostats — Machine temperature controls
- Turntables — Conveyor turntables
Technology used in this occupation:
- Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
Detailed Work Activities
- Remove products or workpieces from production equipment.
- Mount attachments or tools onto production equipment.
- Read work orders or other instructions to determine product specifications or materials requirements.
- Collect samples of materials or products for testing.
- Measure dimensions of completed products or workpieces to verify conformance to specifications.
- Monitor instruments to ensure proper production conditions.
- Record operational or production data.
- Evaluate quality of food ingredients or prepared foods.
- Watch operating equipment to detect malfunctions.
- Weigh finished products.
- Adjust temperature controls of ovens or other heating equipment.
- Operate cooking, baking, or other food preparation equipment.
- Adjust equipment controls to regulate flow of production materials or products.
- Load materials into production equipment.
- Inspect food products.
- Feed materials or products into or through equipment.
- Notify others of equipment repair or maintenance needs.
- Operate pumping systems or equipment.
- Sterilize food cooking or processing equipment.
- Signal others to coordinate work activities.
- Clear equipment jams.
- Move products, materials, or equipment between work areas.
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 99% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — 97% responded “Every day.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 88% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions
- Spend Time Standing
- Contact With Others
- Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — 13% responded “Important.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 95% responded “More than half the time.”
- Consequence of Error
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 96% responded “Some freedom.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 12% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 88% responded “Very important.”
- Exposed to Contaminants
- Physical Proximity — 88% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 89% responded “High responsibility.”
- Time Pressure
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 13% responded “Limited freedom.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 12% responded “Never.”
- Work With Work Group or Team
- Coordinate or Lead Others
- Degree of Automation
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 96% responded “40 hours.”
- Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled
|Title||Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed|
|Education||These occupations usually require a high school diploma.|
|Related Experience||Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.|
|SVP Range||(4.0 to < 6.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|Not available||Less than high school diploma|
|Not available||High school diploma or equivalent|
Interest code: RC
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$13.31 hourly, $27,680 annual|
|Employment (2012)||20,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Little or no change (-2% to 2%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||5,400|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Food and Tobacco Processing Workers . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.