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Details Report for:
15-2021.00 - Mathematicians

Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields. Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods.

Sample of reported job titles: Agent-Based Modeler, Computational Scientist, Cryptographer, Cryptographic Vulnerability Analyst, Director of Quantitative Research, Emerging Solutions Executive, Image Scientist, Lead Simulation Modeling Engineer, Research Scientist, Scientist

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
81   Core Develop computational methods for solving problems that occur in areas of science and engineering or that come from applications in business or industry.
77   Core Apply mathematical theories and techniques to the solution of practical problems in business, engineering, the sciences, or other fields.
75   Core Develop mathematical or statistical models of phenomena to be used for analysis or for computational simulation.
72   Core Assemble sets of assumptions and explore the consequences of each set.
72   Core Maintain knowledge in the field by reading professional journals, talking with other mathematicians, and attending professional conferences.
70   Core Address the relationships of quantities, magnitudes, and forms through the use of numbers and symbols.
68   Core Disseminate research by writing reports, publishing papers, or presenting at professional conferences.
67   Core Perform computations and apply methods of numerical analysis to data.
58   Core Develop new principles and new relationships between existing mathematical principles to advance mathematical science.
60   Supplemental Design, analyze, and decipher encryption systems designed to transmit military, political, financial, or law-enforcement-related information in code.
45   Supplemental Conduct research to extend mathematical knowledge in traditional areas, such as algebra, geometry, probability, and logic.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Desktop computers
High capacity removable media drives — Universal serial bus USB flash drives
Mainframe computers — Supercomputers
Notebook computers — Laptop computers
Personal computers
Read write digital versatile disc DVD — Optical disk drives
Scientific calculator — Graphing calculators

Technology used in this occupation:

Analytical or scientific software — SAS software; Symmetrica *; The MathWizards MathViews; The MathWorks MATLAB (see all 51 examples)
Computer aided design CAD software — Mathsoft Mathcad
Data base user interface and query software — Microsoft Access
Desktop publishing software — MicroPress VTeX software
Development environment software — C; Formula translation/translator FORTRAN; Microsoft Visual Basic
Electronic mail software — Microsoft Outlook
Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop software
Internet browser software — Web browser software
Object or component oriented development software — C++; Python; R *; Sun Microsystems Java
Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
Word processing software — Microsoft Word

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

See all T2 categories and examples

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
95   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
74   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
71   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
63   Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
56   Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
49   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
36   Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
35   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
35   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
32   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
30   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
29   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
28   Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
25   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
22   Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
22   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
22   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
21   Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
21   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
21   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
20   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
19   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
18   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
15   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
15   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
12   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
10   History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
10   Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
  Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
  Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
  Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
  Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
100   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
75   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
75   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
75   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
69   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
60   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
60   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
56   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
56   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
56   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
56   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
56   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
53   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
47   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
47   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
47   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
44   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
44   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
41   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
38   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
38   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
38   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
28   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
28   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
16   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
16   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
16   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
13   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
10   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
 Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
 Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
 Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
94   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
81   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
78   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
75   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
75   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
75   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
69   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
66   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
66   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
66   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
66   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
63   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
63   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
60   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
53   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
53   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
50   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
50   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
47   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
47   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
44   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
35   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
31   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
25   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
19   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
19   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
16   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
16   Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
  Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
 Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
 Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
 Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
 Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
 Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
 Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
 Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
 Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
 Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
 Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
 Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
 Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
 Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
 Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
 Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
89   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
87   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
  • Analyze data to identify trends or relationships among variables.
  • Analyze security of systems, network, or data.
  • Apply mathematical principles or statistical approaches to solve problems in scientific or applied fields.
81   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Determine appropriate methods for data analysis.
80   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
80   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Design computer modeling or simulation programs.
  • Develop scientific or mathematical models.
78   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
76   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
  • Update knowledge about emerging industry or technology trends.
72   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
70   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Prepare analytical reports.
  • Present research results to others.
70   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
70   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
70   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
68   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
61   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
60   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
58   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
58   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
  • Develop computer or information security policies or procedures.
56   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
49   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
47   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
45   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
45   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
44   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
41   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
39   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
38   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
35   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
33   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
31   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
28   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
27   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
20   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
17   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
13   Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
13   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
  Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
  Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
  Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
  Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
  Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
  Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Context
Work Context
96   Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
92   Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
89   Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
87   Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
86   Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
85   Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
79   Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
78   Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
72   Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
70   Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?
66   Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
62   Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
59   Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
48   Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
48   Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
48   Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
43   Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
42   Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
40   Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
39   Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
38   Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
36   Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
36   Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
28   Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
27   Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
27   Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
25   Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
22   Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
18   Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
17   Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
17   Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
  Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
  In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
  Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
  Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
  Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
  Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
  Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
  Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
  Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
  Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
  Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
  Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
  Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
  Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
  Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
 Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
 Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
 Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
 Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
 Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
 Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
 Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
 In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
 Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
 Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
 Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, aerospace engineers, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.
SVP Range (8.0 and above)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
38   Master's degree
33   Doctoral degree
21   Bachelor's degree

This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:

Mathematics — Algebra and Number Theory; Analysis and Functional Analysis; Applied Mathematics; Computational Mathematics; Geometry/Geometric Analysis; Mathematical Statistics and Probability (see all 11 programs)

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
100   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
61   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
50   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
11   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
11   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
 Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
98   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
93   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
87   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
85   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
85   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
85   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
84   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
80   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
78   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
66   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
64   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
57   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
57   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
56   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
40   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
32   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
83   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
78   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
72   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
72   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
22   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
17   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

15-2031.00 Operations Research Analysts   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
15-2041.00 Statisticians Bright Outlook
15-2041.01 Biostatisticians Bright Outlook
19-2011.00 Astronomers
19-2012.00 Physicists
19-2099.01 Remote Sensing Scientists and Technologists Bright Outlook   Green Occupation Green
19-3011.00 Economists
19-3022.00 Survey Researchers
25-1021.00 Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary
25-1022.00 Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary

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Wages & Employment Trends

National

Median wages (2012) $48.73 hourly, $101,360 annual
Employment (2012) 4,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Much faster than average (22% or higher) Much faster than average (22% or higher)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 1,700
Top industries (2012)

State & National

          CareerOneStop

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

Find Jobs
for Mathematicians

          mySkills myFuture

State & National Job Banks

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Mathematicians external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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