Summary Report for:
11-9051.00 - Food Service Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that serves food and beverages.
Sample of reported job titles: Banquet Manager, Catering Manager, Director of Food and Beverage, Food and Beverage Manager, Food Service Director, Food Service Manager, Food Service Supervisor, Kitchen Manager, Restaurant General Manager, Restaurant Manager
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Monitor compliance with health and fire regulations regarding food preparation and serving, and building maintenance in lodging and dining facilities.
- Monitor food preparation methods, portion sizes, and garnishing and presentation of food to ensure that food is prepared and presented in an acceptable manner.
- Count money and make bank deposits.
- Investigate and resolve complaints regarding food quality, service, or accommodations.
- Coordinate assignments of cooking personnel to ensure economical use of food and timely preparation.
- Schedule and receive food and beverage deliveries, checking delivery contents to verify product quality and quantity.
- Monitor budgets and payroll records, and review financial transactions to ensure that expenditures are authorized and budgeted.
- Maintain food and equipment inventories, and keep inventory records.
- Schedule staff hours and assign duties.
- Establish standards for personnel performance and customer service.
- Perform some food preparation or service tasks, such as cooking, clearing tables, and serving food and drinks when necessary.
- Plan menus and food utilization, based on anticipated number of guests, nutritional value, palatability, popularity, and costs.
- Keep records required by government agencies regarding sanitation or food subsidies.
- Test cooked food by tasting and smelling it to ensure palatability and flavor conformity.
- Organize and direct worker training programs, resolve personnel problems, hire new staff, and evaluate employee performance in dining and lodging facilities.
- Order and purchase equipment and supplies.
- Review work procedures and operational problems to determine ways to improve service, performance, or safety.
- Assess staffing needs and recruit staff, using methods such as newspaper advertisements or attendance at job fairs.
- Arrange for equipment maintenance and repairs, and coordinate a variety of services, such as waste removal and pest control.
- Record the number, type, and cost of items sold to determine which items may be unpopular or less profitable.
- Review menus and analyze recipes to determine labor and overhead costs, and assign prices to menu items.
- Monitor employee and patron activities to ensure liquor regulations are obeyed.
- Greet guests, escort them to their seats, and present them with menus and wine lists.
- Schedule use of facilities or catering services for events such as banquets or receptions, and negotiate details of arrangements with clients.
- Estimate food, liquor, wine, and other beverage consumption to anticipate amounts to be purchased or requisitioned.
- Create specialty dishes and develop recipes to be used in dining facilities.
- Establish and enforce nutritional standards for dining establishments, based on accepted industry standards.
- Take dining reservations.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Cash registers — Computerized cash registers
- Laser printers
- Notebook computers
- Personal computers
- Personal digital assistant PDAs or organizers — Personal digital assistants PDA
Technology used in this occupation:
- Accounting software — Food Services Solutions DayCap; Intuit QuickBooks software
- Analytical or scientific software — Aurora FoodPro; ChefTec software; Food Software.com IPro Restaurant Inventory, Recipe & Menu Software; SweetWARE nutraCoster (see all 5 examples)
- Calendar and scheduling software — espSoftware Employee Schedule Partner; iMagic Restaurant Reservation
- Communications server software — IBM Domino
- Data base user interface and query software — Database software; ValuSoft MasterCook
- Desktop publishing software — SoftCafe software
- Electronic mail software — Microsoft Outlook
- Financial analysis software — Delphi software
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Flash
- Inventory management software — Army Food Management Information System software; Food Service Solutions FoodCo; Gift Certificates Plus Giftworks
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
- Point of sale POS software — ClubSoft Food & Beverage Point of Sale; DataTeam Lunch Express; Dinerware Intuitive Restaurant Software; Food Service Solutions POSitive ID System (see all 5 examples)
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Project management software — ReServe Interactive Catering Software
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Time accounting software — Aestiva Employee Time Clock
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
Detailed Work Activities
- Evaluate quality of materials or products.
- Schedule activities or facility use.
- Resolve customer complaints or problems.
- Direct facility maintenance or repair activities.
- Maintain regulatory or compliance documentation.
- Monitor organizational compliance with regulations.
- Analyze data to inform operational decisions or activities.
- Provide basic information to guests, visitors, or clients.
- Maintain operational records.
- Manage guest services.
- Negotiate sales or lease agreements for products or services.
- Monitor activities of individuals to ensure safety or compliance with rules.
- Collect payments for goods or services.
- Monitor organizational procedures to ensure proper functioning.
- Develop organizational policies or programs.
- Prepare staff schedules or work assignments.
- Evaluate employee performance.
- Manage organizational or project budgets.
- Schedule product or material transportation.
- Recruit personnel.
- Manage inventories of products or organizational resources.
- Manage human resources activities.
- Recommend organizational process or policy changes.
- Perform manual service or maintenance tasks.
- Determine resource needs.
- Purchase materials, equipment, or other resources.
- Estimate cost or material requirements.
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 67% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others — 70% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Spend Time Standing — 59% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 53% responded “Very important results.”
- Telephone — 56% responded “Every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 47% responded “High responsibility.”
- Deal With External Customers — 47% responded “Extremely important.”
- Physical Proximity — 46% responded “Very close (near touching).”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 50% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 45% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 39% responded “Extremely important.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 41% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Time Pressure — 44% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 44% responded “Extremely important.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 39% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 37% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 44% responded “Very important.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 50% responded “Extremely important.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 36% responded “Every day.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 33% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 51% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Level of Competition — 35% responded “Extremely competitive.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 49% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 48% responded “Every day.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 37% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 32% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 29% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 27% responded “Every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.|
|Related Experience||Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include food service managers, electricians, agricultural technicians, legal secretaries, occupational therapy assistants, and medical assistants.|
|SVP Range||(6.0 to < 7.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|30||Less than high school diploma|
|28||High school diploma or equivalent|
|14||Some college, no degree|
Interest code: ECR
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$23.34 hourly, $48,560 annual|
|Employment (2012)||321,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Little or no change (-2% to 2%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||62,400|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Food Service Managers . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.
- International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education (ICHRIE) , 2613 N. Parham Rd., 2nd Floor, Richmond, VA 23294-4442. Phone: (804) 346-4800. Fax: (804) 346-5009.
- National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF) , 175 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1500, Chicago, IL 60604-2702. Phone: (800) 765-2122.