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Summary Report for:
19-2032.00 - Materials Scientists

Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass. Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications. Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists.

Sample of reported job titles: Materials Scientist, Micro Electrical/Mechanical Systems Device Scientist (MEMS Device Scientist), Polymer Materials Consultant, Research and Development Scientist (R and D Scientist), Research Scientist, Senior Materials Scientist, Staff Research Scientist, Staff Scientist, Technology Officer, Vice President Research

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks

  • Conduct research on the structures and properties of materials, such as metals, alloys, polymers, and ceramics, to obtain information that could be used to develop new products or enhance existing ones. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Prepare reports, manuscripts, proposals, and technical manuals for use by other scientists and requestors, such as sponsors and customers. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Perform experiments and computer modeling to study the nature, structure, and physical and chemical properties of metals and their alloys, and their responses to applied forces. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Plan laboratory experiments to confirm feasibility of processes and techniques used in the production of materials having special characteristics. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Teach in colleges and universities. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Devise testing methods to evaluate the effects of various conditions on particular materials. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Research methods of processing, forming, and firing materials to develop such products as ceramic dental fillings, unbreakable dinner plates, and telescope lenses. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Confer with customers to determine how to tailor materials to their needs. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Recommend materials for reliable performance in various environments. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Test individual parts and products to ensure that manufacturer and governmental quality and safety standards are met. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Supervise and monitor production processes to ensure efficient use of equipment, timely changes to specifications, and project completion within time frame and budget. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Test metals to determine conformance to specifications of mechanical strength, strength-weight ratio, ductility, magnetic and electrical properties, and resistance to abrasion, corrosion, heat, and cold. See more occupations related to this task.
  • Test material samples for tolerance under tension, compression, and shear to determine the cause of metal failures. See more occupations related to this task.

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Tools & Technology

Tools used in this occupation:

  • Abrasion testers — Erosion testers; Scratch testers; Slurry abrasion testers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Accelerometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Analytical balances — Laboratory analytical balances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Atomic absorption AA spectrometers — Atomic absorption AA spectroscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Binocular light compound microscopes — Optical compound microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Blow torch — Thermal spray torches See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Calorimeters — Differential scanning calorimeters; Microcalorimeters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Casting machines — Tape casters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Corrosion testers — Multisample autoclaves; Salt spray chambers; Titanium autoclaves See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Creep testers — Creep testing equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Crucible furnaces — Induction furnaces See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Crystal growing equipment — Crystal growers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Desktop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Diffractometers — Theta-theta diffractometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Electronic actuators — Dynamic actuators; Static actuators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Extruders — Extruding machines See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Fatigue testers — Servohydraulic test machines See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Freeze dryers or lyopholizers — Freeze dryers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Frequency analyzers — Spectrum analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Fume hoods or cupboards — Fume hoods See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Goggles — Safety goggles See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Grinders — Manual grinders See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Hardness testers — Macrohardness testers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Horizontal turning center — Ultraprecision lathes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Hydraulic press frames — Hot mounting presses; Hydraulic presses See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Impact testers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Induction heaters — Plasma arc melting furnaces See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Inductively coupled plasma ICP spectrometers — Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers ICP-MS See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Infrared spectrometers — Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Injection molding machines — Screw injection molding machines See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Interferometers — Interferometric microscopes; Laser interferometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ion selective electrode ISE meters — Ion analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Isolation glove boxes — Glove box systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory balances — Quartz crystal microbalances; Semi-microbalances; Ultra microbalances See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory box furnaces — Box furnaces; Muffle furnaces; Nitrogen furnaces; Ultra high temperature furnaces (see all 5 examples) See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory crushers or pulverizers — Pulverizers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory evaporators — High vacuum evaporation systems; Metal evaporation chambers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory mills — Ball mills; Shaker ball mills See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Laboratory mixers — Blungers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Light scattering equipment — Backscatter detectors; Dynamic light scattering equipment See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Linear position sensors — Linear variable differential transformers LVDT See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Loadcells — Load cells See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Magnetometers — Vibrating sample magnetometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Manometers — Capacitance manometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Mass spectrometers — Gas chromatograph mass spectrometers GC-MS; Mobile mass spectrometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Metal markers or holders — Electrolytic etching machines See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Metallurgical microscopes — Metallographic microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Microcontrollers — Programmable logic controllers PLC See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Milling machines — Computerized numerical control CNC machining centers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Notebook computers — Laptop computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Oscilloscopes — Digital oscilloscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Particle size measuring apparatus — Sedigraphs See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Personal computers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Photo attachments for microscopes — Charge-coupled device CCD cameras; Microscope digital cameras See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Polarizing microscopes — Petrographic microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Porosimeters — Pore sizers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Potentiometers — Potentiostats See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Power grinders — Grinding spindles; Semiautomatic grinders See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Power saws — Diamond wafering saws; High-speed cutoff saws See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Presses — Cold isostatic presses; Hot isostatic presses See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Radiation detectors — Peltier cooled solid-state detectors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Reflectometers — Neutron reflectometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Rheometers — Capillary rheometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Roughness measuring instruments — Stylus profilometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Safety glasses See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Sampling manifolds — High-vacuum manifolds See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanning electron microscopes — Field emission scanning electron microscopes; Scanning electron microscopes SEM See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Scanning probe microscopes — Atomic force microscopes; Nanoscope atomic force microscopes; Scanning Kelvin probes; Scanning tunneling microscopes STM (see all 5 examples) See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Semiconductor process systems — Reactive ion etchers RIE; Sputter deposition systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Signal generators — Function generators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrofluorimeters or fluorimeters — Spectrofluorimeters See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrometers — Dielectric spectrometers; Gamma ray spectrometers; Mossbauer spectroscopes; Secondary ion mass spectrometers SIMS (see all 6 examples) See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Spectrophotometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Stereo or dissecting light microscopes — Stereo microscopes See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Surface tension measuring instruments — Contact angle goniometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Surface testers — Optical profilometers; Profilometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Swaging tools See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Thermal differential analyzers — Differential thermal analyzers; Dynamic mechanical analyzers DMA See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Thermo gravimetry analyzers — Thermal gravimetric analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Thickness measuring devices — Ellipsometers; Imaging ellipsometers; Quartz crystal thickness monitors See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Transmission electron microscopes — Transmission electron microscopes TEM See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Tube furnaces — Horizontal tube furnaces See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Tumblers or polishers — Vibratory polishers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultra pure water systems — Laboratory water purification systems See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultrasonic cleaning equipment — Ultrasonic cleaners See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Ultrasonic examination equipment — Sonic modulus testers; Ultrasonic analyzers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Vacuum ovens — Annealing ovens See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Viscosimeters — Cone viscometers; Plate viscometers; Rotational viscometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Volumeters — Dilatometers; Double push rod dilatometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • Wear testers — Ball-on-disk tribometers; UV exposure chambers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • X ray diffraction equipment — X ray diffractometers See more occupations related to this tool.
  • X ray generators See more occupations related to this tool.
  • X ray radiography examination equipment — Industrial computed tomography CT scanners See more occupations related to this tool.

Technology used in this occupation:

  • Analytical or scientific software — Bruker AXS LEPTOS; PANalytical X'Pert Epitaxy; Stewart Computational Chemistry MOPAC; VAMP/VASP * (see all 25 examples) See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Data base user interface and query software — International Centre for Diffraction Data ICDD DDView See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Development environment software — National Instruments LabVIEW See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Electronic mail software — Email software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Internet browser software — Web browser software See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel See more occupations related to this technology.
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word See more occupations related to this technology.

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

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Knowledge

  • Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods. See more occupations related to this knowledge.
  • Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects. See more occupations related to this knowledge.

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Skills

  • Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Instructing — Teaching others how to do something. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes. See more occupations related to this skill.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others. See more occupations related to this skill.

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Abilities

  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity). See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object. See more occupations related to this ability.
  • Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness. See more occupations related to this ability.

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Work Activities

  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles). See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Detailed Work Activities

  • Collect information from people through observation, interviews, or surveys. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Monitor operational procedures in technical environments to ensure conformance to standards. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Test quality of materials or finished products. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Confer with clients to exchange information. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Develop theories or models of physical phenomena. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Instruct college students in physical or life sciences. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Advise others on the development or use of new technologies. See more occupations related to this activity.
  • Develop new or advanced products or production methods. See more occupations related to this activity.

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Work Context

  • Electronic Mail — 94% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 79% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 60% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — 75% responded “More than 40 hours.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Telephone — 52% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 54% responded “Some freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 44% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 49% responded “Some freedom.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 42% responded “Extremely important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 40% responded “Every day.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Contact With Others — 42% responded “Contact with others most of the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Level of Competition — 46% responded “Highly competitive.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 33% responded “Moderate responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Letters and Memos — 40% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Spend Time Sitting — 50% responded “More than half the time.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 40% responded “Important results.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — 43% responded “Important.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Consequence of Error — 25% responded “Very serious.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 50% responded “Moderate responsibility.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Time Pressure — 46% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 35% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.” See more occupations related to this work context.

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Job Zone

Title Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.
SVP Range (8.0 and above)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
35   Bachelor's degree
33   Doctoral degree
19   Master's degree

This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:

Engineering — Materials Science

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Credentials

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Interests

Interest code: IR

  • Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally. See more occupations related to this interest.
  • Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others. See more occupations related to this interest.

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Work Styles

  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. See more occupations related to this work style.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. See more occupations related to this work style.

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Work Values

  • Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy. See more occupations related to this work value.
  • Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status. See more occupations related to this work value.

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Related Occupations

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2014) $44.22 hourly, $91,980 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 8,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Slower than average (3% to 7%) Slower than average (3% to 7%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 2,600
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

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