Summary Report for:
29-1122.01 - Low Vision Therapists, Orientation and Mobility Specialists, and Vision Rehabilitation Therapists
Provide therapy to patients with visual impairments to improve their functioning in daily life activities. May train patients in activities such as computer use, communication skills, or home management skills.
Sample of reported job titles: Certified Low Vision Therapist, Certified Orientation & Mobility Specialist, Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialist (COMS), Mobility Specialist, Orientation & Mobility Specialist, Orientation and Mobility Instructor, Orientation and Mobility Specialist, Teacher of Students with Visual Impairments (TVI), Teacher of the Visually Impaired, Vision Rehabilitation Therapist (VRT)
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Teach cane skills including cane use with a guide, diagonal techniques, and two-point touches.
- Train clients to use tactile, auditory, kinesthetic, olfactory, and propioceptive information.
- Assess clients' functioning in areas such as vision, orientation and mobility skills, social and emotional issues, cognition, physical abilities, and personal goals.
- Teach clients to travel independently using a variety of actual or simulated travel situations or exercises.
- Monitor clients' progress to determine whether changes in rehabilitation plans are needed.
- Develop rehabilitation or instructional plans collaboratively with clients, based on results of assessments, needs, and goals.
- Recommend appropriate mobility devices or systems such as human guides, dog guides, long canes, electronic travel aids (ETAs), and other adaptive mobility devices (AMDs).
- Train clients with visual impairments to use mobility devices or systems such as human guides, dog guides, electronic travel aids (ETAs), and other adaptive mobility devices (AMDs).
- Collaborate with specialists, such as rehabilitation counselors, speech pathologists, and occupational therapists, to provide client solutions.
- Provide consultation, support, or education to groups such as parents and teachers.
- Participate in professional development activities such as reading literature, continuing education, attending conferences, and collaborating with colleagues.
- Train clients to use adaptive equipment such as large print, reading stands, lamps, writing implements, software, and electronic devices.
- Write reports or complete forms to document assessments, training, progress, or follow-up outcomes.
- Administer tests and interpret test results to develop rehabilitation plans for clients.
- Refer clients to services, such as eye care, health care, rehabilitation, and counseling, to enhance visual and life functioning or when condition exceeds scope of practice.
- Teach independent living skills or techniques such as adaptive eating, medication management, diabetes management, and personal management.
- Obtain, distribute, or maintain low vision devices.
- Identify visual impairments related to basic life skills in areas such as self-care, literacy, communication, health management, home management, and meal preparation.
- Train clients to read or write Braille.
- Design instructional programs to improve communication using devices such as slates and styluses, braillers, keyboards, adaptive handwriting devices, talking book machines, digital books, and optical character readers (OCRs).
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Anatomical human models for medical education or training — Plastic eye models
- Binocular vision test sets or accessories — Worthmore four-dot test devices
- Binoculars — Piano glasses
- Braille devices for the physically challenged — Braille label makers; Braille personal digital assistants; Braille writers; Tactile maps (see all 6 examples)
- Building blocks — Stacking rings
- Canes or cane accessories — Long canes
- Chart projectors or accessories — Illuminated cabinets
- Closed circuit television CCTV system — Closed circuit television monitors
- Computer display glare screens — Anti-glare visors
- Cutting or paring boards for the physically challenged — Slicing guides
- Eye charts or vision cards — Amsler grids; Lea symbols single symbol books; Near vision acuity charts; Snellen eye charts (see all 23 examples)
- Eye occluders
- Flashlight — Flashlights; Penlights
- Handicraft tools or materials or equipment for the physically challenged — Needle threaders
- Incandescent lamps — Adjustable task lamps
- Keyboards — Large text keyboards
- Lasers — Pointers
- Light enhancing cameras or vision devices — Night scopes
- Magnifiers — Handheld magnifiers; Illuminated magnifiers; Monoculars; Stand magnifiers (see all 6 examples)
- Medical tape measures — Medical measuring tapes
- Optical character recognition systems — Print readers
- Paper or pad holder or dispensers — Copyholders
- Pocket watches — Stop watches
- Sloped reading tables — Reading stands
- Stuffed animals or puppets — Finger puppets
- Visual filters — Flashlight color filters
- Writing aids for the physically challenged — Check writing guides; Envelope addressing guides; Signature guides; Writing guides
Technology used in this occupation:
- Analytical or scientific software — Arkenstone Atlas Speaks
- Computer based training software — American Printing House for the Blind Talking Typer Software; Verbal View software
- Data base user interface and query software — Microsoft Access
- Device drivers or system software — Ai Squared ZoomText; American Printing House for the Blind Learn Keys; Freedom Scientific MAGic; ZoomWare Screen Magnifier (see all 6 examples)
- Internet browser software
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
- Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
Detailed Work Activities
- Diagnose medical conditions.
- Monitor patient progress or responses to treatments.
- Prepare reports summarizing patient diagnostic or care activities.
- Analyze patient data to determine patient needs or treatment goals.
- Recommend types of assistive devices.
- Instruct patients in the use of assistive equipment.
- Maintain medical equipment or instruments.
- Train patients, family members, or caregivers in techniques for managing disabilities or illnesses.
- Collaborate with healthcare professionals to plan or provide treatment.
- Evaluate patient functioning, capabilities, or health.
- Refer patients to other healthcare practitioners or health resources.
- Develop treatment plans that use non-medical therapies.
- Train caregivers or other non-medical personnel.
- Maintain medical or professional knowledge.
- Prepare healthcare training materials.
- Electronic Mail — 84% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 80% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 64% responded “Every day.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 56% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Contact With Others — 52% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 60% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Physical Proximity — 68% responded “Very close (near touching).”
- Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 56% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 60% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 44% responded “Extremely important.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 44% responded “Very important results.”
- Letters and Memos — 52% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — 52% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 40% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 42% responded “More than half the time.”
- Spend Time Standing — 33% responded “More than half the time.”
- Time Pressure — 56% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 32% responded “Very important.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 32% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 25% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Deal With External Customers — 44% responded “Important.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 33% responded “Important.”
- Consequence of Error — 32% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 58% responded “40 hours.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 28% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, sports medicine physicians, wildlife biologists, school psychologists, surgeons, treasurers, and controllers.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
Interest code: SIR
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wages data collected from Occupational Therapists.
Employment data collected from Occupational Therapists.
Industry data collected from Occupational Therapists.
|Median wages (2014)||$37.89 hourly, $78,810 annual|
|Employment (2012)||113,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Much faster than average (22% or higher)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||48,200|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Occupational Therapists . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.