Summary Report for:
35-1012.00 - First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food.
Sample of reported job titles: Assistant Manager, Cafeteria Manager, Dietary Manager, Dietary Supervisor, Executive Chef, Food Service Director, Food Service Manager, Food Service Supervisor, Kitchen Manager, Restaurant Manager
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Train workers in food preparation, and in service, sanitation, and safety procedures.
- Compile and balance cash receipts at the end of the day or shift.
- Perform various financial activities, such as cash handling, deposit preparation, and payroll.
- Supervise and participate in kitchen and dining area cleaning activities.
- Estimate ingredients and supplies required to prepare a recipe.
- Resolve customer complaints regarding food service.
- Control inventories of food, equipment, smallware, and liquor, and report shortages to designated personnel.
- Purchase or requisition supplies and equipment needed to ensure quality and timely delivery of services.
- Observe and evaluate workers and work procedures to ensure quality standards and service, and complete disciplinary write-ups.
- Specify food portions and courses, production and time sequences, and workstation and equipment arrangements.
- Forecast staff, equipment, and supply requirements, based on a master menu.
- Inspect supplies, equipment, and work areas to ensure efficient service and conformance to standards.
- Assign duties, responsibilities, and work stations to employees in accordance with work requirements.
- Analyze operational problems, such as theft and wastage, and establish procedures to alleviate these problems.
- Perform personnel actions, such as hiring and firing staff, providing employee orientation and training, and conducting supervisory activities, such as creating work schedules or organizing employee time sheets.
- Recommend measures for improving work procedures and worker performance to increase service quality and enhance job safety.
- Perform food preparation and serving duties, such as carving meat, preparing flambe dishes, or serving wine and liquor.
- Record production, operational, and personnel data on specified forms.
- Develop equipment maintenance schedules and arrange for repairs.
- Evaluate new products for usefulness and suitability.
- Greet and seat guests, and present menus and wine lists.
- Schedule parties and take reservations.
- Present bills and accept payments.
- Conduct meetings and collaborate with other personnel for menu planning, serving arrangements, and related details.
- Assess nutritional needs of patients, plan special menus, supervise the assembly of regular and special diet trays, and oversee the delivery of food trolleys to hospital patients.
- Develop departmental objectives, budgets, policies, procedures, and strategies.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Bar code reader equipment — Barcode scanners; Linear imaging scanners; Long range charged coupled device CCD barcode scanners; Point of service scanners
- Cash registers
- Desktop computers
- Magnetic stripe readers and encoders — Credit card processing machines
- Notebook computers
- Paging controllers — Restaurant guest and server paging systems
- Point of sale payment terminal — Card readers
- Point of sale POS receipt printers — Point of sale POS printers
- Point of sale POS terminal — Point of sale POS terminals; Point of service workstations
Technology used in this occupation:
- Accounting software — Compeat Restaurant Accounting Systems; CostGuard foodservice software; Sage 50 Accounting
- Calendar and scheduling software — Staff scheduling software
- Data base user interface and query software — CaterPro Software; CBORD FoodService Suite
- Electronic mail software — Microsoft Outlook
- Human resources software — SoftCafe ScheduleWriter
- Inventory management software — AJV Food & Beverage software; CBORD Group Menu Management System; Regnow Chrysanth Inventory Manager
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
- Point of sale POS software — Compris Advanced Manager's Workstation; ICVERIFY software; Intuit QuickBooks Point of Sale; ParTech PixelPoint POS (see all 9 examples)
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Procurement software — Ordering and purchasing software
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel; Restaurant Operations & Management Spreadsheet Library
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
Detailed Work Activities
- Plan menu options.
- Process customer bills or payments.
- Order materials, supplies, or equipment.
- Assist customers with seating arrangements.
- Clean food preparation areas, facilities, or equipment.
- Present food or beverage information or menus to customers.
- Prepare foods for cooking or serving.
- Record operational or production data.
- Monitor food services operations to ensure procedures are followed.
- Balance receipts.
- Communicate with customers to resolve complaints or ensure satisfaction.
- Cut cooked or raw foods.
- Estimate supplies, ingredients, or staff requirements for food preparation activities.
- Maintain food, beverage, or equipment inventories.
- Inspect facilities, equipment or supplies to ensure conformance to standards.
- Train food preparation or food service personnel.
- Coordinate timing of food production activities.
- Coordinate activities of food service staff.
- Manage food service operations or parts of operations.
- Perform human resources activities.
- Schedule dining reservations.
- Schedule equipment maintenance.
- Contact With Others — 78% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 79% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 64% responded “Extremely important.”
- Spend Time Standing — 63% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 48% responded “Extremely important.”
- Telephone — 78% responded “Every day.”
- Physical Proximity — 49% responded “Very close (near touching).”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 67% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Deal With External Customers — 45% responded “Extremely important.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 51% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 40% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 48% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 70% responded “Every day.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 47% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Time Pressure — 40% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 38% responded “Some freedom.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 43% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 39% responded “Important results.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 35% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 44% responded “Very important.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 34% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 49% responded “Every day.”
- Letters and Memos — 45% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 40% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 30% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Level of Competition — 36% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 38% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 31% responded “Very important.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 39% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 42% responded “Every day.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 45% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — 39% responded “Less than half the time.”
|Title||Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed|
|Education||These occupations usually require a high school diploma.|
|Related Experience||Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.|
|SVP Range||(4.0 to < 6.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|51||High school diploma or equivalent|
|32||Less than high school diploma|
This occupation may require a background in the following science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational disciplines:
Interest code: ECR
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$14.21 hourly, $29,560 annual|
|Employment (2012)||849,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Average (8% to 14%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||348,700|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- American Culinary Federation (ACF) , 180 Center Pl. Way, St. Augustine, FL 32095. Phone: (800) 624-9458. Fax: (904) 825-4758.
- International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education (ICHRIE) , 2613 N. Parham Rd., 2nd Floor, Richmond, VA 23294-4442. Phone: (804) 346-4800. Fax: (804) 346-5009.
- National Restaurant Association (NRA) , 1200 17th St. NW, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: (202) 331-5900.