Summary Report for:
35-3021.00 - Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food
Perform duties which combine preparing and serving food and nonalcoholic beverages.
Sample of reported job titles: Car Hop, Counter Attendant, Crew Member, Deli Clerk (Delicatessen Clerk), Deli Worker (Delicatessen Worker), Dietary Aide, Food Service Worker, Prep Cook (Preparation Cook), School Cafeteria Cook, Server
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Serve customers in eating places that specialize in fast service and inexpensive carry-out food.
- Accept payment from customers, and make change as necessary.
- Request and record customer orders, and compute bills using cash registers, multi counting machines, or pencil and paper.
- Clean and organize eating, service, and kitchen areas.
- Notify kitchen personnel of shortages or special orders.
- Communicate with customers regarding orders, comments, and complaints.
- Prepare daily food items, and cook simple foods and beverages, such as sandwiches, salads, soups, pizza, or coffee, using proper safety precautions and sanitary measures.
- Select food items from serving or storage areas and place them in dishes, on serving trays, or in take-out bags.
- Relay food orders to cooks.
- Prepare and serve cold drinks, or frozen milk drinks or desserts, using drink-dispensing, milkshake, or frozen custard machines.
- Collect and return dirty dishes to the kitchen for washing.
- Perform personnel activities such as supervising and training employees.
- Monitor and order supplies or food items and restock as necessary to maintain inventory.
- Cook or reheat food items such as french fries.
- Wash dishes, glassware, and silverware after meals.
- Pack food, dishes, utensils, tablecloths, and accessories for transportation from catering or food preparation establishments to locations designated by customers.
- Distribute food to servers.
- Plan, prepare, and deliver meals to individuals with special dietary needs.
- Arrange tables and decorations according to instructions.
- Provide caterers with assistance in food preparation or service.
- Serve food and beverages to guests at banquets or other social functions.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Bar code reader equipment — Barcode scanners; Linear imaging scanners; Long range charged coupled device CCD barcode scanners; Point of service scanners
- Belt conveyors — Food conveyor belts
- Cappuccino or espresso machines — Espresso machines
- Carbonated beverage dispenser — Carbonated beverage dispensers
- Carts — Motorized food transportation carts
- Cash registers
- Commercial use broilers — Broilers
- Commercial use coffee or iced tea makers — Coffee makers
- Commercial use convection ovens — Convection ovens
- Commercial use cutlery — Chefs' knives
- Commercial use deep fryers — Deep fat fryers; Deep wells; Fryers
- Commercial use dishwashers — Commercial dishwashers
- Commercial use dough machines — Pastry makers
- Commercial use electric can openers — Can openers
- Commercial use food choppers or cubers or dicers — Automatic dicers; Food choppers
- Commercial use food grinders — Meat grinders
- Commercial use food processors — Food processors
- Commercial use food slicers — Automatic slicers; Vertical cutters
- Commercial use food warmers — Electric warming tables; Steam counters; Steam tables
- Commercial use graters — Grating equipment
- Commercial use grills — Grills
- Commercial use mixers — Mixers
- Commercial use molds — Patty making machines
- Commercial use ovens — Commercial cooking ovens
- Commercial use peelers — Automatic peelers
- Commercial use ranges — Stoves
- Commercial use scales — Scales
- Commercial use scoops — Metal ice cream scoops
- Commercial use steamers — Steam cookers
- Commercial use toasters — Toasters
- Food grade sanitizers — Sanitizing units
- Ice dispensers — Ice machines
- Magnetic stripe readers and encoders — Credit card processing machines; Credit card scanners
- Milk dispensers — Milk dispensing machines
- Milkshake machines — Milkshake and smoothie machines
- Non carbonated beverage dispenser — Non-carbonated beverage dispensers
- Point of sale POS receipt printers — Point of sale POS printers
- Point of sale POS terminal — Point of sale POS terminals; Point of service workstations
- Slush machines
- Soft serve machines — Ice cream/yogurt machines
- Touch screen monitors
Technology used in this occupation:
- Data base user interface and query software — Menu and nutrition database software
- Point of sale POS software — ICVERIFY software; Intuit QuickBooks Point of Sale; NCR Advanced Checkout Solution; NCR NeighborhoodPOS (see all 7 examples)
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
Detailed Work Activities
- Process customer bills or payments.
- Order materials, supplies, or equipment.
- Cook foods.
- Arrange food for serving.
- Clean food preparation areas, facilities, or equipment.
- Take customer orders.
- Clean tableware.
- Communicate with customers to resolve complaints or ensure satisfaction.
- Operate cash registers.
- Serve food or beverages.
- Communicate dining or order details to kitchen personnel.
- Clean food service areas.
- Prepare hot or cold beverages.
- Train food preparation or food service personnel.
- Arrange tables or dining areas.
- Package food or supplies.
- Move equipment, supplies or food to required locations.
- Collect dirty dishes or other tableware.
- Assist chefs or caterers with food or drink preparation.
- Spend Time Standing — 81% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Physical Proximity — 55% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Contact With Others — 65% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 51% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 47% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 46% responded “Extremely important.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 58% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 45% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 46% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Deal With External Customers — 37% responded “Extremely important.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 35% responded “Important.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 68% responded “Every day.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 40% responded “Very important.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 39% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 29% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 58% responded “Every day.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 49% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 45% responded “Every day.”
- Level of Competition — 31% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 33% responded “Extremely important.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 45% responded “Some freedom.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 26% responded “Moderate results.”
- Telephone — 37% responded “Every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 32% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 29% responded “Very little freedom.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 38% responded “Every day.”
|Title||Job Zone One: Little or No Preparation Needed|
|Education||Some of these occupations may require a high school diploma or GED certificate.|
|Related Experience||Little or no previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, a person can become a waiter or waitress even if he/she has never worked before.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few days to a few months of training. Usually, an experienced worker could show you how to do the job.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations involve following instructions and helping others. Examples include taxi drivers, amusement and recreation attendants, counter and rental clerks, nonfarm animal caretakers, continuous mining machine operators, and waiters/waitresses.|
|SVP Range||(Below 4.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|70||Less than high school diploma|
|22||High school diploma or equivalent|
Interest code: CRE
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$8.85 hourly, $18,410 annual|
|Employment (2012)||2,969,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Average (8% to 14%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||1,555,700|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Food and Beverage Serving and Related Workers . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.
- International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education (ICHRIE) , 2613 N. Parham Rd., 2nd Floor, Richmond, VA 23294-4442. Phone: (804) 346-4800. Fax: (804) 346-5009.
- National Restaurant Association (NRA) , 1200 17th St. NW, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: (202) 331-5900.