Summary Report for:
47-2181.00 - Roofers
Cover roofs of structures with shingles, slate, asphalt, aluminum, wood, or related materials. May spray roofs, sidings, and walls with material to bind, seal, insulate, or soundproof sections of structures.
Sample of reported job titles: Industrial Roofer, Metal Roofing Mechanic, Residential Roofer, Roof Mechanic, Roof Service Technician, Roofer, Roofing Technician, Sheet Metal Roofer
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Inspect problem roofs to determine the best repair procedures.
- Set up scaffolding to provide safe access to roofs.
- Align roofing materials with edges of roofs.
- Clean and maintain equipment.
- Cement or nail flashing strips of metal or shingle over joints to make them watertight.
- Install, repair, or replace single-ply roofing systems, using waterproof sheet materials such as modified plastics, elastomeric, or other asphaltic compositions.
- Cut felt, shingles, or strips of flashing to fit angles formed by walls, vents, or intersecting roof surfaces.
- Install vapor barriers or layers of insulation on flat roofs.
- Cut roofing paper to size using knives; and nail or staple roofing paper to roofs in overlapping strips to form bases for other materials.
- Cover exposed nailheads with roofing cement or caulking to prevent water leakage or rust.
- Install partially overlapping layers of material over roof insulation surfaces, using chalk lines, gauges on shingling hatchets, or lines on shingles.
- Cover roofs or exterior walls of structures with slate, asphalt, aluminum, wood, gravel, gypsum, or related materials, using brushes, knives, punches, hammers, or other tools.
- Remove snow, water, or debris from roofs prior to applying roofing materials.
- Apply alternate layers of hot asphalt or tar and roofing paper to roofs.
- Estimate roofing materials and labor required to complete jobs, and provide price quotes.
- Spray roofs, sidings, or walls to bind, seal, insulate, or soundproof sections of structures, using spray guns, air compressors, or heaters.
- Waterproof or damp-proof walls, floors, roofs, foundations, or basements by painting or spraying surfaces with waterproof coatings or by attaching waterproofing membranes to surfaces.
- Mop or pour hot asphalt or tar onto roof bases.
- Apply plastic coatings, membranes, fiberglass, or felt over sloped roofs before applying shingles.
- Smooth rough spots to prepare surfaces for waterproofing, using hammers, chisels, or rubbing bricks.
- Glaze top layers to make a smooth finish or embed gravel in the bitumen for rough surfaces.
- Apply gravel or pebbles over top layers of roofs, using rakes or stiff-bristled brooms.
- Punch holes in slate, tile, terra cotta, or wooden shingles, using punches and hammers.
- Apply modular soil- and plant-containing grids over existing roof membranes to create green roofs.
- Apply reflective roof coatings, such as special paints or single-ply roofing sheets, to existing roofs to reduce solar heat absorption.
- Attach solar panels to existing roofs, according to specifications and without damaging roofing materials or the structural integrity of buildings.
- Install attic ventilation systems, such as turbine vents, gable or ridge vents, or conventional or solar-powered exhaust fans.
- Install layers of vegetation-based green roofs, including protective membranes, drainage, aeration, water retention and filter layers, soil substrates, irrigation materials, and plants.
- Install skylights on roofs to increase natural light inside structures or to reduce energy costs.
- Install solar roofing systems that have energy-collecting photovoltaic panels built into roofing membranes, shingles, or tiles.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Air compressors
- Air dryers — Hot air blowers; Roof dryers
- Angle brackets — Adjustable roof brackets; Fixed-roof brackets
- Anvils — Slaters' anvils
- Bituminous material distributors — Bitumen applicators
- Blocks or pulleys — Hoisting wheels; Long ladder hoisting wheels; Short ladder hoisting wheels
- Blow torch — Double-lock seamers; Propane torches; Single seamers; Torches (see all 7 examples)
- Caulking guns
- Chalk lines — Chalk line markers; Roofing layout tapes
- Chip Spreaders — Gravelers; Hot or cold process power gravelers
- Claw hammer — Claw hammers
- Cold chisels — Grooving tools; Seaming chisels
- Cutting machines — Power roof cutters
- Desktop computers
- Fall protection lanyard — Safety lanyards
- Hammers — Nail hammers; Plastic hammers; Seaming hammers; Slate hammers (see all 5 examples)
- Hatchets — Carpenters' hatchets; Metric roofing hatchets; Standard roofing hatchets; Wood shingling hatchets (see all 5 examples)
- Heat guns — Hot air welding machines
- Heat tracing equipment — Infrared thermometers
- Hip and ridge — Roofing spades; Shake tear-off tools; Shingle rippers; Tear-off shovels (see all 8 examples)
- Hoists — Hydraulic swing beam hoists; Power hoists; Shingle ladder hoists; Trolley track hoists
- Hydraulic hand crimp tool — Hand crimpers
- Kettle exchangers — Double-burner pump kettles; Single burner draw kettles; Single burner pump kettles
- Ladders — Chicken ladders
- Laser printers
- Liquid leak detectors — Electronic leak detectors
- Magnetic tools — Rolling magnetic sweepers
- Manual press brake — Bench-mount hand brakes
- Measuring wheels for distance — Measuring wheels
- Metal folding machine — Cleat benders
- Notebook computers
- Personal computers
- Personal digital assistant PDAs or organizers — Personal digital assistants PDA
- Pipe bending tools — Downspout crimpers
- Pneumatic nail drivers — Pneumatic air nailers
- Power drills
- Power nail guns — Roofing coil nailers
- Power saws — Circular saws; Gas-powered chop saws; Reciprocating saws; Shingle saws
- Protractors — Roof pitch finders
- Pry bars — Spud bars; Spud/scraper bars; Wrecking bars
- Pullers — Nail pullers; Nail strippers; Scraper/pullers
- Punches or nail sets or drifts — Hand punches
- Punching pliers — Core cutters
- Putty knives
- Rivet tools — Pop rivet guns
- Roofing mop — Tar mops
- Safety harnesses or belts — Fall arrest systems; Safety belts
- Safety hooks — Roof hooks
- Safety shoes — Korker cleats; Roofing shoes
- Scaffolding — Ladder jacks
- Scaffolding handrail — Roofing guardrails
- Scaffolding stabilizers — Ladder braces; Ladder levelers; Ladder standoffs
- Scales — Triangular scales
- Seam welder — Seam finishing machines; Semiautomatic welding machines
- Shears — Clipping shears; Foot squaring shears; Membrane slitters; Slate cutters
- Sheet metal pliers — Hand roofing double seamers; Seaming pliers; Tinsmith pliers; Two-handed edgers
- Shovels — Shingle shovels
- Soldering iron — Heat welders; Soldering irons
- Staple guns — Hammer tackers
- Swaging tools — Rotary machines
- Tape measures — Measuring tapes
- Tinners snips — Compound snips; Snips; Straight snips; Tin snips
- Tongs — Sheet metal hand tongs
- Trowels — Pointing trowels; Round-point trowels
- Utility knives — Angle knives; Draw knives; Roofing knives
- Welding masks — Welding hoods
- Wood chisels
Technology used in this occupation:
- Analytical or scientific software — Energy cost evaluation software; Humidity and vapor drive calculation software; Roof Calculator software; Top View software
- Computer aided design CAD software — AppliCad software; ASR Software TopView LE; DigiTools Roof CAD; Ziatek RoofDraw (see all 7 examples)
- Data base user interface and query software — CADAFIS Roofing software; Insight Direct ServiceCEO; RoofLogic software; Wintac Pro Software (see all 5 examples)
- Project management software — Maintenance record software
- Spreadsheet software
- Word processing software
- Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
- Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
- Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
Detailed Work Activities
- Pour materials into or on designated areas.
- Cut carpet, vinyl or other flexible materials.
- Inspect work sites to determine condition or necessary repairs.
- Clean equipment or facilities.
- Smooth surfaces with abrasive materials or tools.
- Apply sealants or other protective coatings.
- Spread sand, dirt or other loose materials onto surfaces.
- Apply adhesives to construction materials.
- Install solar energy systems.
- Estimate construction project labor requirements.
- Assemble temporary equipment or structures.
- Install insulation in equipment or structures.
- Install doors or windows.
- Estimate materials requirements for projects.
- Drill holes in construction materials.
- Install roofing materials.
- Apply paint to surfaces.
- Install green structural components, equipment or systems.
- Remove debris or vegetation from work sites.
- Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 100% responded “Every day.”
- Exposed to High Places — 89% responded “Every day.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 88% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 77% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 78% responded “Very important results.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 72% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 73% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Spend Time Standing — 65% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 67% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 41% responded “More than half the time.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 61% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 45% responded “Extremely important.”
- In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — 73% responded “Every day.”
- Physical Proximity — 15% responded “Slightly close (e.g., shared office).”
- Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — 61% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — 54% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — 40% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — 46% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Contact With Others — 65% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 28% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 39% responded “Extremely important.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 24% responded “Less than half the time.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 44% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Telephone — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Time Pressure — 58% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 18% responded “Never.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 19% responded “Limited freedom.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 60% responded “Every day.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 42% responded “Important.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 48% responded “Very important.”
- Consequence of Error — 35% responded “Serious.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 31% responded “Every day.”
- Deal With External Customers — 66% responded “Important.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 37% responded “Every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 59% responded “40 hours.”
- Level of Competition — 50% responded “Moderately competitive.”
- Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — 51% responded “Very important.”
- Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — 56% responded “Every day.”
- Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — 59% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Work Schedules — 82% responded “Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration).”
|Title||Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed|
|Education||These occupations usually require a high school diploma.|
|Related Experience||Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.|
|SVP Range||(4.0 to < 6.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|52||High school diploma or equivalent|
|34||Less than high school diploma|
Interest code: RC
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$17.19 hourly, $35,760 annual|
|Employment (2012)||133,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Average (8% to 14%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||42,900|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Roofers . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.