Summary Report for:
51-9194.00 - Etchers and Engravers
Engrave or etch metal, wood, rubber, or other materials. Includes such workers as etcher-circuit processors, pantograph engravers, and silk screen etchers.
Sample of reported job titles: Acid Etch Operator, Computer Engraver, Electronic Engraver Operator, Engraver, Etcher, Laser Engraver, Mechanical Engraver Operator, Metals Engraver, Photo Engraver, Screen Making Technician
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings
- Adjust depths and sizes of cuts by adjusting heights of worktables, or by adjusting machine-arm gauges.
- Engrave and print patterns, designs, etchings, trademarks, or lettering onto flat or curved surfaces of a wide variety of metal, glass, plastic, or paper items, using hand tools or hand-held power tools.
- Position and clamp workpieces, plates, or rollers in holding fixtures.
- Determine machine settings, and move bars or levers to reproduce designs on rollers or plates.
- Examine engraving for quality of cut, burrs, rough spots, and irregular or incomplete engraving.
- Measure and compute dimensions of lettering, designs, or patterns to be engraved.
- Start machines and lower cutting tools to beginning points on patterns.
- Clean and polish engraved areas.
- Examine sketches, diagrams, samples, blueprints, or photographs to decide how designs are to be etched, cut, or engraved onto workpieces.
- Prepare etching chemicals according to formulas, diluting acid with water to obtain solutions of specified concentration.
- Observe actions of cutting tools through microscopes and adjust stylus movement to ensure accurate reproduction.
- Reduce artwork to be used, using reduction cameras.
- Sandblast exposed areas of glass to cut designs in surfaces, using spray guns.
- Set reduction scales to attain specified sizes of reproduction on workpieces, and set pantograph controls for required heights, depths, and widths of cuts.
- Neutralize workpieces to remove acid, wax, or enamel, using water, solvents, brushes, or specialized machines.
- Inspect etched work for depth of etching, uniformity, and defects, using calibrated microscopes, gauges, fingers, or magnifying lenses.
- Prepare workpieces for etching or engraving by cutting, sanding, cleaning, polishing, or treating them with wax, acid resist, lime, etching powder, or light-sensitive enamel.
- Insert cutting tools or bits into machines and secure them with wrenches.
- Print proofs or examine designs to verify accuracy of engraving, and rework engraving as required.
- Transfer image to workpiece, using contact printer, pantograph stylus, silkscreen printing device, or stamp pad.
- Sketch, trace, or scribe layout lines and designs on workpieces, plates, dies, or rollers, using compasses, scribers, gravers, or pencils.
- Guide stylus over template, causing cutting tool to duplicate design or letters on workpiece.
- Remove completed workpieces and place them in trays.
- Carve designs and letters onto metal for transfer to other surfaces.
- Select and insert required templates into pattern frames beneath the stylus of a machine cutting tool or router.
- Cut outlines of impressions with gravers, and remove excess material with knives.
- Fill etched characters with opaque paste to improve readability.
- Brush or wipe acid over engraving to darken or highlight inscriptions.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Adjustable wrenches
- Applicator brushes
- Arbors — Hand arbors
- Bench grinder — Bench grinders
- Bench vises
- Binocular light compound microscopes — Binocular benchtop microscopes
- Burnisher — Burnishing tools
- Coating machines — Whirler machines
- Cold chisels — Flat cold chisels
- Compasses — Drafting compasses
- Cross and straight pein hammer — Chasing hammers
- Drill press or radial drill — Benchtop drill presses
- Engravers — Gravers
- Grinding or polishing machines — Polishing machines
- Horizontal turning center — Engraving lathes
- Ink or stamp pads — Stamp pads
- Magnifiers — Magnifying lenses
- Magnifying lamp — Magnifying lamps
- Metal engraving machine — Automatic feeding eyelet machines; Laser engraving systems; Pantograph engraving machines; Rotary engraving machines (see all 5 examples)
- Paint systems ovens — Curing ovens
- Personal computers
- Power routers
- Precision file — Precision file sets
- Printed circuit board making system — Reduction cameras
- Rulers — Precision rulers
- Safety glasses — Protective glasses
- Scribers — Scriber markers
- Semiconductor process systems — Contact printers
- Shears — Sheet metal shears
- Shot blasting machine — Sandblasting spray guns
- Silk screen printing machines — Silkscreen printing devices
- Ultraviolet UV lamps
- Utility knives
- Work benches — Work tables
Technology used in this occupation:
- Computer aided design CAD and computer aided manufacturing CAM system — Computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing CAD/CAM engraving software
- Computer aided manufacturing CAM software — Delcam ArtCAM Express; Gravograph GravoStyle; Western Engravers Supply Vision EXPERT
- Data base user interface and query software — Data entry software
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Illustrator
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
- Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
Detailed Work Activities
- Remove products or workpieces from production equipment.
- Mount attachments or tools onto production equipment.
- Select production equipment according to product specifications.
- Inspected printed materials or other images to verify quality.
- Mount materials or workpieces onto production equipment.
- Monitor equipment operation to ensure that products are not flawed.
- Trim excess material from workpieces.
- Mix substances to create chemical solutions.
- Polish materials, workpieces, or finished products.
- Cut industrial materials in preparation for fabrication or processing.
- Review blueprints or other instructions to determine operational methods or sequences.
- Apply protective or decorative finishes to workpieces or products.
- Measure materials to mark reference points, cutting lines, or other indicators.
- Operate photographic developing or print production equipment.
- Operate cutting equipment.
- Clean workpieces or finished products.
- Calculate dimensions of workpieces, products, or equipment.
- Set equipment controls to meet cutting specifications.
- Engrave designs, text, or other markings onto materials, workpieces, or products.
- Determine production equipment settings.
- Immerse objects or workpieces in cleaning or coating solutions.
- Inspect finishes of workpieces or finished products.
- Position patterns on equipment, materials, or workpieces.
- Apply solutions to production equipment.
- Fill cracks, imperfections, or holes in products or workpieces.
- Draw guide lines or markings on materials or workpieces using patterns or other references.
- Operate equipment to print images or bind printed images together.
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 89% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 84% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 82% responded “Extremely important.”
- Telephone — 81% responded “Every day.”
- Time Pressure — 72% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 82% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 78% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 18% responded “About half the time.”
- Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — 13% responded “Fairly important.”
- Degree of Automation — 22% responded “Moderately automated.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 19% responded “Very important results.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 13% responded “Extremely important.”
- Level of Competition — 13% responded “Moderately competitive.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 72% responded “Very important.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 75% responded “More than half the time.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 17% responded “Limited responsibility.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 14% responded “About half the time.”
- Spend Time Standing
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety
|Title||Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed|
|Education||These occupations usually require a high school diploma.|
|Related Experience||Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.|
|SVP Range||(4.0 to < 6.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|47||High school diploma or equivalent|
|27||Less than high school diploma|
|25||Some college, no degree|
Interest code: RC
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$14.06 hourly, $29,250 annual|
|Employment (2012)||10,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Decline (-3% or lower)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||2,300|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.