Summary Report for:
29-1067.00 - Surgeons
Physicians who treat diseases, injuries, and deformities by invasive, minimally-invasive, or non-invasive surgical methods, such as using instruments, appliances, or by manual manipulation.
Sample of reported job titles: Cardiovascular Surgeon, General Surgeon, Hand Surgeon, Orthopaedic Surgeon, Orthopedic Surgeon, Physician, Plastic Surgeon, Surgeon, Thoracic Surgeon, Vascular Surgeon
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Follow established surgical techniques during the operation.
- Examine patient to obtain information on medical condition and surgical risk.
- Operate on patients to correct deformities, repair injuries, prevent and treat diseases, or improve or restore patients' functions.
- Analyze patient's medical history, medication allergies, physical condition, and examination results to verify operation's necessity and to determine best procedure.
- Prescribe preoperative and postoperative treatments and procedures, such as sedatives, diets, antibiotics, or preparation and treatment of the patient's operative area.
- Diagnose bodily disorders and orthopedic conditions and provide treatments, such as medicines and surgeries, in clinics, hospital wards, or operating rooms.
- Provide consultation and surgical assistance to other physicians and surgeons.
- Direct and coordinate activities of nurses, assistants, specialists, residents, and other medical staff.
- Refer patient to medical specialist or other practitioners when necessary.
- Prepare case histories.
- Manage surgery services, including planning, scheduling and coordination, determination of procedures, or procurement of supplies and equipment.
- Examine instruments, equipment, and operating room to ensure sterility.
- Conduct research to develop and test surgical techniques that can improve operating procedures and outcomes.
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Computer imaging software; SmugMug Flickr
- Human resources software — Human resources management system HRMS
- Medical software — Epic Systems ; Image-guided surgery software; MEDITECH software ; Three-dimensional 3D virtual surgery software (see all 9 examples)
- Operating system software — Microsoft Windows
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Abdominal retractors
- Amputation retractors
- Arterial line catheters
- Automated external defibrillators AED or hard paddles — Automated external defibrillators AED; Internal defibrillators
- Autotransfusion units — Cell savers
- Blood recovery and delivery systems — Autologous blood recovery systems
- Bronchoscopes or accessories — Bronchoscopes
- Cardiac output CO monitoring units or accessories — Hemodynamic monitors
- Cardiovascular or thoracic retractors — IMA retractors; Thoracic retractors
- Central venous catheters — Subclavian lines
- Cervical retractors
- Colposcopes or vaginoscopes or accessories — Colposcopes
- Cryosurgery equipment or accessories — Cryoprobes; Cryosurgery units
- Cystourethroscopes — Cystoscopes; Flexible ureteroscopes; Rigid ureteroscopes
- Desktop computers
- Diagnostic or interventional vascular catheters or sets — Pulmonary artery catheters
- Digital cameras
- Ear retractors
- Electrocardiography EKG units — Electrocardiography EKG machines
- Electrosurgical or electrocautery equipment — Argon beam coagulators; Biopolar cautery equipment; Electrosurgery units; Harmonic scalpels (see all 5 examples)
- Endoscopic clamp or dissector or grasper or forceps — Laparascopic graspers
- Endoscopic insufflation or distention units or accessories — Endoscopic insufflators
- Endoscopic video cameras or recorders or adapters or accessories — Endoscopic video cameras
- Eyemagnets for ophthalmic surgery — Eye magnets
- Facial shields — Protective eye shields
- Flexible endoscopes or accessories or related products — Flexible fiberoptic endoscopes
- Gastrointestinal retractors
- Heart and lung machines or accessories — Cardiopulmonary bypass pumps; Heart and lung machines
- Intravenous tubing with catheter administration kits — Intravenous IV equipment
- Laparoscopes or laparoscopic telescopes — Laparascopes
- Lip retractors
- Lung retractors
- Medical staff isolation or surgical masks — Surgical masks
- Medical stapler for external use — Skin staplers
- Medical stapler for internal use — Bowel stapling equipment
- Medical ultrasound or doppler or pulse echo or echography units for general diagnostic use — Diagnostic ultrasound equipment
- Medical x ray units for general diagnostic use — Portable x ray machines
- Nerve retractors
- Operating room patient fracture tables or orthopedic tables or accessories or related products — External fixators; Fracture tables
- Operating room patient positioning devices or accessories — Mayfield headrests
- Operating room patient procedure tables or accessories or related products — Andrews tables
- Ophthalmic retractors
- Ophthalmic surgery instrument sets — Vitrector sets
- Oral retractors
- Orthopedic retractors
- Oxygen therapy delivery system products accessories or its supplies — Oxygen administration equipment
- Patient controlled analgesia infusion pumps — Patient controlled analgesia PCA pumps
- Personal computers
- Plastic surgery retractors
- Pulse oximeter units — Pulse oximeters
- Radiosurgical gamma knife units or scintillators — Radiosurgical gamma knives
- Rectal retractors
- Short wave diathermy units — Diathermy equipment
- Skin retractors
- Spine or neuro retractors — Cervical spine retractors
- Sternum retractors — Sternal retractors
- Surgical bone cutting forceps — Bone-cutting forceps
- Surgical bone hand saws or wire saws or saw handles — Surgical hand saws
- Surgical calipers or rulers — Surgical calipers; Surgical rulers
- Surgical chisels or gouges — Bone chisels
- Surgical clamps or clips or forceps or accessories — Dressing forceps; Ear forceps; Tumor forceps; Vascular clips (see all 40 examples)
- Surgical curettes or loops — Surgical curettes
- Surgical dermatomes or dermabraders or dermameshers or accessories — Dermatomes; Padgett dermatomes; Zimmer dermatomes
- Surgical dilators or accessories — Surgical dilators
- Surgical drapes — Sterile drapes
- Surgical drivers or its parts or accessories — Surgical hand drivers
- Surgical elevators or levers — Surgical elevators
- Surgical extractors — Stone extractors
- Surgical gloves
- Surgical hammers or mallets — Surgical mallets
- Surgical irrigation or suction handpiece or cannula or tip — Suction tips
- Surgical irrigation sets or accessories — Irrigation tubing; Surgical irrigation sets
- Surgical lasers or accessories — Carbon dioxide CO2 lasers; Holmium lasers; Laser dopplers; Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nd:YAG lasers
- Surgical lighted fiberoptic retractors — Surgical fiberoptic retractors
- Surgical lithotripters or accessories — Ultrasonic lithotripters
- Surgical microscopes or loops or magnifiers or accessories — Ceiling mounted microscopes; ENT microscopes; Portable surgical microscopes; Surgical microscopes
- Surgical needle holders for general use — Surgical needle holders
- Surgical nerve stimulators or accessories — Surgical nerve stimulators
- Surgical nippers
- Surgical or endoscopic catheters or catheterization kits or drainage bags — Endoscopic catheters
- Surgical perfusion catheters or connectors or accessories — Balloon perfusion catheters
- Surgical pneumatic or battery or electric saws or drills or pin drivers or accessories — Craniotome drills; Sternal saws; Surgical power drills; Surgical power saws (see all 7 examples)
- Surgical pneumatic or electric tourniquets or accessories — Surgical tourniquets
- Surgical power equipment sets or accessories — Hip arthroplasty robots; Robotic arms; Surgical robots
- Surgical probes or directors — Tactile probes
- Surgical punches or punch holder or accessories — Biopsy punches
- Surgical rake retractors — Rigid rake retractors
- Surgical rasps
- Surgical retractors for general use — Surgical retractors
- Surgical rongeurs — Bone ronguers
- Surgical scalpels or knives or blades or trephines or accessories — Surgical scalpels
- Surgical scissors — Enterotomy scissors; Thoracic scissors; Tonsil scissors; Uterine scissors (see all 5 examples)
- Surgical smoke evacuators or accessories — Operating room smoke evacuators
- Surgical specula
- Surgical spreaders — Rib spreaders
- Surgical suction machines or vacuum extractors or ultrasonic surgical aspirators or regulators or accessories — Cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirators CUSA; Suction machines; Surgical aspirators; Wells Johnson aspirators
- Surgical taps
- Surgical tourniquets or vascular occluders or ligators or accessories — Vascular occluders
- Surgical trocars for general use or accessories — Surgical trocars
- Surgical urology retractors or its accessories — Urology retractors
- Suture needles — Surgical suture needles
- Tissue retractors
- Tracheal retractors
- Urological surgical instrument sets — Optical urethrotomes
- Uterine devices or accessories — Hysteroscopes
- Uterine retractors
- Vascular sequential compression devices or tubing — Sequential compression devices
- Vein harvest kit or system — Endoscope vein harvesting equipment
- Vein retractors
- Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
- Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
- Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
- Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
- Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
- Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
- Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
Detailed Work Activities
- Operate on patients to treat conditions.
- Examine patients to assess general physical condition.
- Follow protocols or regulations for healthcare activities.
- Analyze patient data to determine patient needs or treatment goals.
- Prescribe medications.
- Diagnose medical conditions.
- Prescribe treatments or therapies.
- Advise medical personnel regarding healthcare issues.
- Assist healthcare practitioners during surgery.
- Supervise patient care personnel.
- Record patient medical histories.
- Refer patients to other healthcare practitioners or health resources.
- Manage healthcare operations.
- Order medical supplies or equipment.
- Schedule patient procedures or appointments.
- Sterilize medical equipment or instruments.
- Conduct research to increase knowledge about medical issues.
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 91% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 93% responded “Extremely important.”
- Physical Proximity — 92% responded “Very close (near touching).”
- Telephone — 87% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 84% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Contact With Others — 74% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 87% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 70% responded “Extremely important.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 69% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 71% responded “Very important results.”
- Consequence of Error — 80% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 71% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 64% responded “Extremely important.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 76% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Exposed to Disease or Infections — 63% responded “Every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 66% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Deal With External Customers — 57% responded “Extremely important.”
- Time Pressure — 57% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 53% responded “More than half the time.”
- Spend Time Standing — 55% responded “More than half the time.”
- Level of Competition — 42% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 47% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Electronic Mail — 48% responded “Every day.”
- Letters and Memos — 40% responded “Every day.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 40% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 44% responded “Extremely important.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 43% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 40% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 42% responded “Less than half the time.”
|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
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- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2018)||$100.00+ hourly, $208,000+ annual|
|Employment (2018)||38,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2018-2028)||Little or no change (-1% to 1%)|
|Projected job openings (2018-2028)||1,200|
|Top industries (2018)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2018 wage data and 2018-2028 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2018-2028). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- American Academy of Ophthalmology
- American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
- American Association for Hand Surgery
- American College of Surgeons
- American Medical Association
- American Pediatric Surgical Association
- American Society for Surgery of the Hand
- American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
- American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons
- American Society of General Surgeons
- American Society of Plastic Surgeons
- American Surgical Association
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Physicians and surgeons
- Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons
- Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
- The Society of Thoracic Surgeons