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Details Report for:
21-1021.00 - Child, Family, and School Social Workers

Provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic functioning of children. May assist parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or abused children. In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy. May also advise teachers.

Sample of reported job titles: School Social Worker, Family Service Worker, Case Manager, Foster Care Social Worker, Social Worker, Family Protection Specialist, Youth Services Specialist, Case Worker, Caseworker, Child Protective Services Social Worker (CPS Social Worker)

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
88   Core Counsel individuals, groups, families, or communities regarding issues including mental health, poverty, unemployment, substance abuse, physical abuse, rehabilitation, social adjustment, child care, or medical care.
87   Core Interview clients individually, in families, or in groups, assessing their situations, capabilities, and problems, to determine what services are required to meet their needs.
87   Core Serve as liaisons between students, homes, schools, family services, child guidance clinics, courts, protective services, doctors, and other contacts, to help children who face problems such as disabilities, abuse, or poverty.
86   Core Maintain case history records and prepare reports.
85   Core Counsel parents with child rearing problems, interviewing the child and family to determine whether further action is required.
82   Core Refer clients to community resources for services such as job placement, debt counseling, legal aid, housing, medical treatment, or financial assistance, and provide concrete information, such as where to go and how to apply.
81   Core Consult with parents, teachers, and other school personnel to determine causes of problems such as truancy and misbehavior, and to implement solutions.
80   Core Counsel students whose behavior, school progress, or mental or physical impairment indicate a need for assistance, diagnosing students' problems and arranging for needed services.
80   Core Address legal issues, such as child abuse and discipline, assisting with hearings and providing testimony to inform custody arrangements.
80   Core Develop and review service plans in consultation with clients, and perform follow-ups assessing the quantity and quality of services provided.
79   Core Provide, find, or arrange for support services, such as child care, homemaker service, prenatal care, substance abuse treatment, job training, counseling, or parenting classes, to prevent more serious problems from developing.
74   Core Arrange for medical, psychiatric, and other tests that may disclose causes of difficulties and indicate remedial measures.
67   Core Collect supplementary information needed to assist client, such as employment records, medical records, or school reports.
83   Supplemental Administer welfare programs.
81   Supplemental Recommend temporary foster care and advise foster or adoptive parents.
81   Supplemental Supervise other social workers.
80   Supplemental Lead group counseling sessions that provide support in such areas as grief, stress, or chemical dependency.
79   Supplemental Place children in foster or adoptive homes, institutions, or medical treatment centers.
78   Supplemental Evaluate personal characteristics and home conditions of foster home or adoption applicants.
77   Supplemental Determine clients' eligibility for financial assistance.
53   Supplemental Serve on policymaking committees, assist in community development, and assist client groups by lobbying for solutions to problems.
53   Supplemental Work in child and adolescent residential institutions.
52   Supplemental Conduct social research.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Desktop computers
Laser fax machine — Laser facsimile machines
Laser printers — Computer laser printers
Notebook computers — Laptop computers
Personal computers
Photocopiers — Photocopying equipment
Special purpose telephones — Multi-line telephone systems

Technology used in this occupation:

Data base user interface and query software — Microsoft Access; Student information systems SIS
Electronic mail software — Microsoft Outlook
Internet browser software — Web browser software
Medical software — Patient electronic medical record EMR software
Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
Word processing software — Microsoft Word

See all T2 categories and examples

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
89   Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
88   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
76   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
68   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
66   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
59   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
51   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
49   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
41   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
39   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
38   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
29   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
28   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
25   Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
24   Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
23   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
20   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
17   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
17   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
15   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
10   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
  Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
  History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
  Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
  Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
  Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
 Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
 Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
 Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
 Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
 Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
 Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
91   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
91   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
81   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
78   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
75   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
75   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
75   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
72   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
66   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
66   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
66   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
63   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
63   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
63   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
60   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
56   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
56   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
53   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
53   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
50   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
50   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
44   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
25   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
25   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
19   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
19   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
19   Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
10   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
10   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
  Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
 Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
 Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
 Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
88   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
88   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
81   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
81   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
78   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
78   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
75   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
72   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
72   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
66   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
63   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
56   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
56   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
56   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
53   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
53   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
50   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
47   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
44   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
44   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
44   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
41   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
35   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
35   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
35   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
31   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
31   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
28   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
25   Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
25   Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
25   Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
25   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
22   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
22   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
22   Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
22   Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
19   Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
19   Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
19   Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
19   Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
19   Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
16   Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
  Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
  Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
 Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
 Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
 Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
 Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
 Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
94   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
  • Collect information about clients.
  • Interview clients to gather information about their backgrounds, needs, or progress.
  • Research social issues.
92   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Collaborate with other professionals to assess client needs or plan treatments.
  • Collaborate with other professionals to develop education or assistance programs.
91   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
86   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
86   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
85   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
83   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
80   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
  • Arrange physical or mental health services for clients.
  • Help clients get needed services or resources.
  • Refer clients to community or social service programs.
  • Refer individuals to educational or work programs.
80   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
78   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Maintain client records.
  • Write reports or evaluations.
72   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
71   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
71   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
70   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
70   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
68   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
  • Confer with clients to discuss treatment plans or progress.
  • Confer with family members to discuss client treatment plans or progress.
68   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
68   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
67   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
67   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
  • Evaluate characteristics of individuals to determine needs or eligibility.
  • Evaluate potential problems in home or work environments of clients.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of counseling or educational programs.
63   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
63   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
62   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
62   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
61   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
  • Advise clients or community groups on health issues.
  • Counsel clients or patients regarding personal issues.
  • Counsel clients or patients with substance abuse issues.
  • Counsel clients regarding educational or vocational issues.
  • Counsel clients regarding interpersonal issues.
  • Recommend legal actions.
58   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
  • Advocate for individual or community needs.
55   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
54   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Supervise workers providing client or patient services.
54   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
53   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
47   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
41   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
34   Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
34   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
33   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
24   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
23   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
15   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
15   Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
12   Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
  Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Context
Work Context
100   Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
99   Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
98   Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
95   Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
91   Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
87   Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
84   Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?
84   Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
84   Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
83   Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
83   Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
80   Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
80   Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
79   Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
78   Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
75   Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
71   Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
68   Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
67   Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
66   Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
59   In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
54   Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
54   Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
53   Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
48   Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
48   Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
47   Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
46   Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
45   Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
43   Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
43   Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
40   Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
35   Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
34   Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
29   Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
27   Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
25   Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
22   Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
18   Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
13   Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
  Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
  Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
  Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
  Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
  Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
  Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
  Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
  Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
  Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
  Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
  Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
  Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
  In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
  Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
  Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
 Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
 Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, environmental engineers, criminal investigators, and special agents.
SVP Range (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
Not available Bachelor's degree
Not available Master's degree
Not available Post-baccalaureate certificate Help

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Credentials

Find Training Find Certifications Find Licenses

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
100   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
56   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
45   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
39   Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
33   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
 Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
96   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
96   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
94   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
94   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
93   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
93   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
92   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
83   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
80   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
79   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
78   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
72   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
70   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
70   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
65   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
59   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
95   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
83   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
72   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
67   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
61   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
45   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

11-9151.00 Social and Community Service Managers
19-3031.03 Counseling Psychologists
21-1011.00 Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
21-1014.00 Mental Health Counselors Bright Outlook
21-1023.00 Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers Bright Outlook
21-1092.00 Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists
21-1093.00 Social and Human Service Assistants Bright Outlook
21-2021.00 Directors, Religious Activities and Education
23-1022.00 Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators   Green Occupation Green
29-1125.00 Recreational Therapists

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2013) $20.25 hourly, $42,120 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 286,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Faster than average (15% to 21%) Faster than average (15% to 21%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 103,600
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Government (41% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Social Workers external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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