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Details Report for:
25-4031.00 - Library Technicians

Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media; remove or repair damaged books or other media; register patrons; and check materials in and out of the circulation process. Replace materials in shelving area (stacks) or files. Includes bookmobile drivers who assist with providing services in mobile libraries.

Sample of reported job titles: Library Assistant, Library Technician, Library Associate, Library Technical Assistant (LTA), Library Specialist, Library Aide, Library Clerk, Page Technician, Acquisitions Technician, Assistant Librarian

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
79   Core Help patrons find and use library resources, such as reference materials, audiovisual equipment, computers and other electronic resources, and provide technical assistance when needed.
77   Core Answer routine telephone or in-person reference inquiries, referring patrons to librarians for further assistance, when necessary.
76   Core Process print and non-print library materials to prepare them for inclusion in library collections.
75   Core Reserve, circulate, renew, and discharge books and other materials.
71   Core Catalogue and sort books and other print and non-print materials according to procedure, and return them to shelves, files, or other designated storage areas.
69   Core Provide assistance to teachers and students by locating materials and helping to complete special projects.
68   Core Organize and maintain periodicals and reference materials.
60   Core Maintain and troubleshoot problems with library equipment including computers, photocopiers, and audiovisual equipment.
60   Core Deliver and retrieve items throughout the library by hand or using pushcart.
59   Core Train other staff, volunteers or student assistants, and schedule and supervise their work.
93   Supplemental Order all print and non-print library materials, checking prices, figuring costs, preparing order slips, and making payments.
85   Supplemental Process interlibrary loans for patrons.
77   Supplemental Enter and update patrons' records on computers.
77   Supplemental Retrieve information from central databases for storage in a library's computer.
77   Supplemental Prepare volumes for binding.
75   Supplemental Verify bibliographical data for materials, including author, title, publisher, publication date, and edition.
74   Supplemental Review subject matter of materials to be classified, and select classification numbers and headings according to classification systems.
72   Supplemental Issue identification cards to borrowers.
70   Supplemental Send out notices about lost or overdue books.
66   Supplemental Collect fines, and respond to complaints about fines.
65   Supplemental Compile and maintain records relating to circulation, materials, and equipment.
65   Supplemental Check for damaged library materials such as books, or audiovisual equipment, and provide replacements or make repairs.
64   Supplemental Collaborate with archivists to arrange for the safe storage of historical records and documents.
62   Supplemental Claim missing issues of periodicals and journals.
62   Supplemental Conduct reference searches, using printed materials and in-house and online databases.
61   Supplemental Take actions to halt disruption of library activities by problem patrons.
59   Supplemental Plan and conduct children's programs, community outreach programs, and other specialized programs such as library tours.
59   Supplemental File catalog cards according to system used.
55   Supplemental Compile data and create statistical reports on library usage.
44   Supplemental Design, customize, and maintain databases, web pages, and local area networks.
42   Supplemental Operate and maintain audiovisual equipment such as projectors, tape recorders, and videocassette recorders.
40   Supplemental Compose explanatory summaries of contents of books and other reference materials.
38   Supplemental Compile bibliographies and prepare abstracts on subjects of interest to particular organizations or groups.
37   Supplemental Design posters and special displays to promote use of library facilities or specific reading programs at libraries.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Bar code reader equipment — Barcode scanners
Cash registers
Desktop computers
Digital video disk players or recorders — Digital video disk DVD players
Film projectors
Microfiche or microfilm viewers — Microfiche readers; Microfilm readers
Microfiche reader printers — Microfilm printers
Notebook computers — Laptop computers
Photocopiers — Photocopying equipment
Scanners

Technology used in this occupation:

Data base user interface and query software — Ex Libris Group Aleph; Inmagic TextWorks; Microsoft Access; National Library of Medicine Medline * (see all 6 examples)
Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat software
Electronic mail software — Email software
Internet browser software — Web browser software
Library software — Online Computer Library Center OCLC; SirsiDynix Symphony; WebClarity Software BookWhere; WorldCat * (see all 8 examples)
Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver
Word processing software — HandyFile Find and Replace Text Aid Kit; Microsoft Word

* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.

See all 24 T2 categories

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
79   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
77   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
72   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
53   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
46   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
43   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
38   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
35   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
33   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
30   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
28   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
22   History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
18   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
17   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
16   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
12   Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
12   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
12   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
12   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
12   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
10   Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
10   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
  Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
  Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
  Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
  Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
  Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
  Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
  Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
  Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
  Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
56   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
56   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
53   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
53   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
50   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
50   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
47   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
47   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
47   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
44   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
44   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
41   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
41   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
41   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
41   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
35   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
35   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
31   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
31   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
28   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
28   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
22   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
19   Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
19   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
19   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
19   Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
16   Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
16   Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
13   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
10   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
  Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
  Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
  Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
  Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
  Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
60   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
60   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
56   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
56   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
56   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
56   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
53   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
50   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
47   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
47   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
44   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
44   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
44   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
44   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
41   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
41   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
41   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
38   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
35   Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
35   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
35   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
31   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
31   Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
31   Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
31   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
31   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
31   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
31   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
28   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
28   Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
28   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
25   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
25   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
25   Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
25   Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
25   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
25   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
22   Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
13   Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
10   Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
  Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
  Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
  Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
  Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
 Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
 Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
67   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Assist other educational professionals with projects or research.
  • Confer with others to conduct or arrange operational activities.
63   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
63   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
61   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
  • Search information sources to find specific data.
61   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
  • Compile specialized bibliographies or lists of materials.
60   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
60   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
58   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
57   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
57   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
  • Plan community programs or activities for the general public.
56   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Develop instructional materials.
  • Maintain operational records.
  • Organize informational materials.
  • Write articles, books or other original materials in area of expertise.
53   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
53   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
52   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
  • Provide information to the general public.
46   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
45   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
43   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
  • Train staff members.
42   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
38   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
37   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Develop library or archival databases.
36   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
36   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
34   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
33   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
  • Operate audiovisual equipment.
32   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
  • Help patrons use library or archival resources.
32   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
30   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
  • Distribute instructional or library materials.
  • Maintain inventories of materials, equipment, or products.
  • Order instructional or library materials or equipment.
28   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
  • Inspect materials or equipment to determine need for repair or replacement.
28   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
  • Classify materials according to standard systems.
  • Process library materials.
27   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
26   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
25   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Direct activities of subordinates.
20   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
19   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
15   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
12   Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
  • Maintain computer equipment or software.
11   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
  Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
  Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
  Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
  Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Work Context
Percentage of Top Responses
Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?


91     Every day
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?


98     Every day
Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?


92     Every day
Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?


86     Every day
Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?


76     Extremely important
Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?


19     Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?


20     Extremely important
Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?


13     Every day
62     Once a week or more but not every day
16     Once a month or more but not every week
Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?


11     Limited freedom
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?


16     More than half the time
Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?


11     Limited freedom
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?


13     Continually or almost continually
64     More than half the time
14     Less than half the time
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?


14     Extremely important
Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?


78     Highly automated
Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?


16     Not serious at all
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?


19     Once a year or more but not every month
Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.


15     Less than 40 hours
Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?


13     Once a week or more but not every day
Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?


13     Once a week or more but not every day
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?
Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?


18     Not important at all
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?


11     High responsibility
12     Limited responsibility
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?


13     Continually or almost continually
17     Never
Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?


11     Once a week or more but not every day
Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?


23     Never
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?


21     No responsibility
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?


64     Once a year or more but not every month
17     Never
Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?


77     Less than half the time
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?


33     Less than half the time
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?


61     Once a year or more but not every month
30     Never
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?


65     Once a year or more but not every month
34     Never
Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?


96     Regular (established routine, set schedule)
Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?


95     Never
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)


98     Not important at all
Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?


100     Never
Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?


100     Never
Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?


100     Never
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?


100     Never
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?


99     Never
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?


100     Never

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
Not available Bachelor's degree
Not available Professional degree Help
Not available High school diploma or equivalent Help

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Credentials

Find Training Find Licenses

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
100   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
67   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
45   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
22   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
11   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
  Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
86   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
85   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
83   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
67   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
66   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
64   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
62   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
60   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
54   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
54   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
51   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
45   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
44   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
44   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
34   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
33   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
72   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
61   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
50   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
45   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
33   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
22   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

19-4061.00 Social Science Research Assistants
23-2011.00 Paralegals and Legal Assistants
23-2093.00 Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers
25-9041.00 Teacher Assistants Bright Outlook
43-3021.02 Billing, Cost, and Rate Clerks Bright Outlook
43-3031.00 Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
43-3061.00 Procurement Clerks
43-4071.00 File Clerks
43-4161.00 Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping
43-6012.00 Legal Secretaries

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2013) $15.04 hourly, $31,280 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 106,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Average (8% to 14%) Average (8% to 14%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 66,300
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Government (53% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

Find Jobs Job Banks

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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