Summary Report for:
11-1021.00 - General and Operations Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of public or private sector organizations. Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services.
Sample of reported job titles: Chief Operating Officer (COO), Director of Operations, Facilities Manager, General Manager (GM), Operations Manager, Plant Manager, Plant Superintendent, Store Manager, Vice President of Operations, Warehouse Manager
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Oversee activities directly related to making products or providing services.
- Direct and coordinate activities of businesses or departments concerned with the production, pricing, sales, or distribution of products.
- Review financial statements, sales and activity reports, and other performance data to measure productivity and goal achievement and to determine areas needing cost reduction and program improvement.
- Manage staff, preparing work schedules and assigning specific duties.
- Direct and coordinate organization's financial and budget activities to fund operations, maximize investments, and increase efficiency.
- Establish and implement departmental policies, goals, objectives, and procedures, conferring with board members, organization officials, and staff members as necessary.
- Determine staffing requirements, and interview, hire and train new employees, or oversee those personnel processes.
- Plan and direct activities such as sales promotions, coordinating with other department heads as required.
- Determine goods and services to be sold, and set prices and credit terms, based on forecasts of customer demand.
- Locate, select, and procure merchandise for resale, representing management in purchase negotiations.
- Monitor businesses and agencies to ensure that they efficiently and effectively provide needed services while staying within budgetary limits.
- Perform sales floor work, such as greeting or assisting customers, stocking shelves, or taking inventory.
- Manage the movement of goods into and out of production facilities.
- Develop or implement product-marketing strategies, including advertising campaigns or sales promotions.
- Recommend locations for new facilities or oversee the remodeling or renovating of current facilities.
- Direct non-merchandising departments of businesses, such as advertising or purchasing.
- Implement or oversee environmental management or sustainability programs addressing issues such as recycling, conservation, or waste management.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Desktop calculator — 10-key calculators
- Desktop computers
- Digital cameras
- Hand trucks or accessories — Handtrucks
- High vacuum equipment — Vacuum test chambers
- Magnetic stripe readers and encoders — Credit card processing machines; Magnetic card readers
- Mobile phones — Cell phones
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Personal computers
- Personal digital assistant PDAs or organizers — Personal digital assistants PDA
- Photocopiers — Photocopying equipment
- Point of sale POS terminal — Point of sale POS systems
- Scanners — Computer scanners
- Security cameras — Surveillance cameras
- Surface testers — Profilometers
- Temperature and humidity walk in environmental chamber — Humidity test chambers
Technology used in this occupation:
- Accounting software — Bookkeeping software; Intuit QuickBooks software
- Calendar and scheduling software
- Charting software — Microsoft Office Visio
- Computer aided design CAD software — Autodesk AutoCAD software
- Customer relationship management CRM software — Sage ACT!; Salesforce.com Salesforce CRM; Sugar CRM software; vtiger CRM * (see all 12 examples)
- Data base user interface and query software — Microsoft Access; Savant MobileRanger
- Data mining software — Datawatch Monarch
- Electronic mail software — Email software; IBM Lotus Notes; Microsoft Outlook; Mozilla Thunderbird *
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — Deacom ERP software; SAP software
- Facilities management software — InnQuest Software roomMaster
- Financial analysis software — Sage MAS 500
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop software
- Human resources software — Personnel scheduling software
- Internet browser software — Microsoft Internet Explorer *; Mozilla Firefox *; SeaMonkey *; Web browser software
- Inventory management software
- Materials requirements planning logistics and supply chain software — LSA Visual Easy Lean
- Medical software — Dynamic Energy Systems MedAct
- Network conferencing software — Microsoft Office SharePoint Server MOSS
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
- Point of sale POS software
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Project management software — Microsoft Project; Realization Streamliner
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Time accounting software — Kronos Workforce Payroll; Kronos Workforce Timekeeper; Payroll software
- Web page creation and editing software — Microsoft FrontPage
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
Detailed Work Activities
- Direct financial operations.
- Direct organizational operations, projects, or services.
- Monitor performance of organizational members or partners.
- Analyze data to inform operational decisions or activities.
- Provide basic information to guests, visitors, or clients.
- Develop organizational goals or objectives.
- Manage environmental sustainability projects.
- Implement organizational process or policy changes.
- Develop organizational policies or programs.
- Manage construction activities.
- Prepare staff schedules or work assignments.
- Conduct employee training programs.
- Hire personnel.
- Direct sales, marketing, or customer service activities.
- Develop marketing plans or strategies.
- Analyze financial records to improve efficiency.
- Recommend organizational process or policy changes.
- Determine pricing or monetary policies.
- Determine resource needs.
- Purchase materials, equipment, or other resources.
- Plan facility layouts or designs.
- Telephone — 100% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 80% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 86% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Contact With Others — 79% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 73% responded “Very important results.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 77% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 84% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 75% responded “Every day.”
- Deal With External Customers — 75% responded “Extremely important.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 70% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 61% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Electronic Mail — 69% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 65% responded “Extremely important.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 48% responded “Very important.”
- Time Pressure — 52% responded “Every day.”
- Letters and Memos — 41% responded “Every day.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 42% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 47% responded “Very important.”
- Level of Competition — 34% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 42% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 39% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 40% responded “Less than half the time.”
- Physical Proximity — 33% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Spend Time Standing — 40% responded “Less than half the time.”
- Consequence of Error — 35% responded “Not serious at all.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 31% responded “Every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.|
|Related Experience||Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include food service managers, electricians, agricultural technicians, legal secretaries, occupational therapy assistants, and medical assistants.|
|SVP Range||(6.0 to < 7.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|11||Some college, no degree|
Interest code: ECS
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$46.77 hourly, $97,270 annual|
|Employment (2012)||1,973,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Average (8% to 14%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||613,100|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Top Executives . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.
- American Management Association (AMA) , 1601 Broadway, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10019. Phone: (877) 566-9441. Fax: (212) 903-8168.
- Council of State Governments (CSG) , P.O. Box 11910, 2760 Research Park Dr., Lexington, KY 40578-1910. Phone: (859) 244-8000. Fax: (859) 244-8001.
- Financial Executives International (FEI) , 200 Campus Dr., P.O. Box 674, Florham Park, NJ 07932-0674. Phone: (973) 765-1000. Fax: (973) 765-1018.
- Financial Management Association International (FMA) , College of Business Administration, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., BSN 3331, Tampa, FL 33620-5500. Phone: (813) 974-2084. Fax: (813) 974-3318.
- Institute of Certified Professional Managers (ICPM) , James Madison University, MSC 5504, Harrisonburg, VA 22807. Phone: (800) 568-4120. Fax: (540) 801-8650.
- International Public Management Association for Human Resources (IPMA-HR) , 1617 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Phone: (703) 549-7100.
- National Association of Counties (NACo) , 25 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 393-6226.
- National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) , 7700 E. First Pl., Denver, CO 80230. Phone: (303) 364-7700. Fax: (303) 364-7800.
- National League of Cities , 1301 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Suite 550, Washington, DC 20004. Phone: (202) 626-3000. Fax: (202) 626-3043.
- National Management Association (NMA) , 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439. Phone: (937) 294-0421.