Summary Report for:
43-3031.00 - Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks
Compute, classify, and record numerical data to keep financial records complete. Perform any combination of routine calculating, posting, and verifying duties to obtain primary financial data for use in maintaining accounting records. May also check the accuracy of figures, calculations, and postings pertaining to business transactions recorded by other workers.
Sample of reported job titles: Account Clerk, Account Receivable Clerk, Accounting Assistant, Accounting Associate, Accounting Clerk, Accounts Payable Clerk, Accounts Payable Specialist, Accounts Payables Clerk, Accounts Receivable Clerk, Bookkeeper
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Operate computers programmed with accounting software to record, store, and analyze information.
- Check figures, postings, and documents for correct entry, mathematical accuracy, and proper codes.
- Classify, record, and summarize numerical and financial data to compile and keep financial records, using journals and ledgers or computers.
- Debit, credit, and total accounts on computer spreadsheets and databases, using specialized accounting software.
- Operate 10-key calculators, typewriters, and copy machines to perform calculations and produce documents.
- Receive, record, and bank cash, checks, and vouchers.
- Comply with federal, state, and company policies, procedures, and regulations.
- Compile statistical, financial, accounting or auditing reports and tables pertaining to such matters as cash receipts, expenditures, accounts payable and receivable, and profits and losses.
- Code documents according to company procedures.
- Reconcile or note and report discrepancies found in records.
- Access computerized financial information to answer general questions as well as those related to specific accounts.
- Match order forms with invoices, and record the necessary information.
- Perform general office duties such as filing, answering telephones, and handling routine correspondence.
- Perform personal bookkeeping services.
- Prepare bank deposits by compiling data from cashiers, verifying and balancing receipts, and sending cash, checks, or other forms of payment to banks.
- Prepare trial balances of books.
- Calculate, prepare, and issue bills, invoices, account statements, and other financial statements according to established procedures.
- Calculate and prepare checks for utilities, taxes, and other payments.
- Compute deductions for income and social security taxes.
- Prepare and process payroll information.
- Compare computer printouts to manually maintained journals to determine if they match.
- Reconcile records of bank transactions.
- Transfer details from separate journals to general ledgers or data processing sheets.
- Complete and submit tax forms and returns, workers' compensation forms, pension contribution forms, and other government documents.
- Prepare purchase orders and expense reports.
- Monitor status of loans and accounts to ensure that payments are up to date.
- Perform financial calculations such as amounts due, interest charges, balances, discounts, equity, and principal.
- Calculate costs of materials, overhead and other expenses, based on estimates, quotations and price lists.
- Compile budget data and documents, based on estimated revenues and expenses and previous budgets.
- Maintain inventory records.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Desktop calculator — 10-key calculators
- Desktop computers
- Ledger paper — Ledger sheets
- Notebook computers
- Receipts or receipt books — Receipt books
- Scanners — Image scanners
- Scientific calculator — Financial calculators
Technology used in this occupation:
- Accounting software — Accurate NXG; Blackbaud The Financial Edge; Infor Global Solutions Starbuilder; Sage Peachtree software (see all 35 examples)
- Compliance software — Corporate Responsibility System Technologies Limited CRSTL Compliance Positioning System; FLS eDP.Payrolltax; Intrax ProcedureNet; Paisley Cardmap (see all 7 examples)
- Customer relationship management CRM software — Sage ACT!
- Data base user interface and query software — Database software; Microsoft Access; Sage 100 Contractor
- Document management software — Accutrac software; Document management system software; OmniRIM software; Records management software
- Electronic mail software — Email software; Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise application integration software — SAP BusinessObjects Data Integrator
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — AcornSystems Corporate Performance Management; Cartesis ES Magnitude; Microsoft Great Plains software; Sage MAS software (see all 8 examples)
- Financial analysis software — AuditWare software; MethodWare ProAudit Advisor; Paisley AutoAudit; RSM McGladrey Auditor Assistant (see all 8 examples)
- Internet browser software — Microsoft Internet Explorer *
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Project management software — HCSS HeavyBid; HCSS HeavyJob
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Time accounting software — ADP Pay eXpert; HMS software; Payroll software
- Transaction server software — Tumbleweed SecureTransport
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
* Software developed by a government agency and/or distributed as freeware or shareware.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
Detailed Work Activities
- Verify accuracy of financial or transactional data.
- Execute sales or other financial transactions.
- Collect deposits, payments or fees.
- Prepare cash for deposit or disbursement.
- Calculate financial data.
- Answer telephones to direct calls or provide information.
- Compile data or documentation.
- Calculate costs of goods or services.
- Search files, databases or reference materials to obtain needed information.
- Maintain financial or account records.
- Reconcile records of sales or other financial transactions.
- Operate computers or computerized equipment.
- Operate office equipment.
- Prepare documentation for contracts, transactions, or regulatory compliance.
- File documents or records.
- Monitor financial information.
- Code data or other information.
- Maintain inventory records.
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 84% responded “Extremely important.”
- Telephone — 91% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 79% responded “Extremely important.”
- Electronic Mail — 82% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 87% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 54% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 65% responded “Every day.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 50% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 48% responded “Some freedom.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 62% responded “Every day.”
- Time Pressure — 40% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Contact With Others — 42% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 36% responded “Very important.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 35% responded “Very important results.”
- Letters and Memos — 30% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 36% responded “About half the time.”
- Deal With External Customers — 30% responded “Extremely important.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 38% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 81% responded “40 hours.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 27% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.|
|Related Experience||Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include food service managers, electricians, agricultural technicians, legal secretaries, occupational therapy assistants, and medical assistants.|
|SVP Range||(6.0 to < 7.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|38||High school diploma or equivalent|
|27||Some college, no degree|
Interest code: CE
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$17.51 hourly, $36,430 annual|
|Employment (2012)||1,800,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Average (8% to 14%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||370,000|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.
- American Institute of Professional Bookkeepers (AIBP) , 6001 Montrose Rd., Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20852. Phone: (800) 622-0121. Fax: (800) 541-0066.