Summary Report for:
51-3011.00 - Bakers
Mix and bake ingredients to produce breads, rolls, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, or other baked goods.
Sample of reported job titles: Baker, Bakery Clerk, Bakery Manager, Cake Decorator, Dough Mixer, Machine Operator, Mixer, Pastry Chef, Processor, Scaler
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Observe color of products being baked and adjust oven temperatures, humidity, or conveyor speeds accordingly.
- Set oven temperatures and place items into hot ovens for baking.
- Combine measured ingredients in bowls of mixing, blending, or cooking machinery.
- Measure or weigh flour or other ingredients to prepare batters, doughs, fillings, or icings, using scales or graduated containers.
- Roll, knead, cut, or shape dough to form sweet rolls, pie crusts, tarts, cookies, or other products.
- Place dough in pans, molds, or on sheets and bake in production ovens or on grills.
- Check the quality of raw materials to ensure that standards and specifications are met.
- Adapt the quantity of ingredients to match the amount of items to be baked.
- Apply glazes, icings, or other toppings to baked goods, using spatulas or brushes.
- Check equipment to ensure that it meets health and safety regulations and perform maintenance or cleaning, as necessary.
- Decorate baked goods, such as cakes or pastries.
- Set time and speed controls for mixing machines, blending machines, or steam kettles so that ingredients will be mixed or cooked according to instructions.
- Prepare or maintain inventory or production records.
- Direct or coordinate bakery deliveries.
- Order or receive supplies or equipment.
- Operate slicing or wrapping machines.
- Develop new recipes for baked goods.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Air brushes — Cake decorating air brushes
- Air compressors — Portable air compressors
- Air conveyors — Pneumatic conveyors
- Bar code reader equipment — Barcode scanners
- Belt conveyors — Industrial kitchen belt conveyors
- Blast freezers — Blast chillers
- Blow torch — Propane torches
- Cake decorating equipment or moulds — Cake decorating combs; Cake decorating palette knives; Rose nails; Textured mats (see all 13 examples)
- Cappuccino or espresso machines — Cappuccino makers; Espresso makers
- Cash registers — Electronic cash registers
- Cleaning brushes — Bench brushes
- Coating machines — Icing machines; Pan greasers
- Commercial use bain maries — Bain maries
- Commercial use blenders — Industrial kitchen food blenders
- Commercial use broilers — Industrial kitchen broilers
- Commercial use cake or pie pans — Commercial cake pans; Commercial pie pans; Pan liners
- Commercial use coffee grinders — Commercial coffee grinders
- Commercial use coffee or iced tea makers — Commercial coffeemakers
- Commercial use convection ovens — Commercial kitchen convection ovens
- Commercial use cutlery — Chefs' knives; Paring knives; Pastry wheels; Serrated knives (see all 11 examples)
- Commercial use deep fryers — Doughnut fryers; Open fat kettles
- Commercial use dishwashers — Dishwashing machines
- Commercial use dough machines — Dough laminators
- Commercial use food choppers or cubers or dicers — Food dicers
- Commercial use food grinders — Bread crumbers; Nut grinders
- Commercial use food processors — Commercial kitchen food processors
- Commercial use food slicers — Bread slicers; Cake dividers; Cake levelers
- Commercial use food warmers — Chocolate warmers; Dough proofers; Food warmers; Hot cases
- Commercial use graters — Food graters; Fruit zesters
- Commercial use griddles — Industrial kitchen griddles
- Commercial use grills — Commercial food grilling equipment
- Commercial use heat lamps — Infrared food heating lamps; Sugar lamps
- Commercial use high pressure steamers — Pressurized steam cookers
- Commercial use icing sets or bags — Cake decorating tips; Cake decorating tubes; Pastry bags; Squeeze bottles
- Commercial use juicers — Juice extractors
- Commercial use ladles — Commercial baking ladles
- Commercial use measuring cups — Dry ingredient measuring cups; Liquid ingredient measuring cups; Measuring spoons
- Commercial use microwave ovens — Commercial kitchen microwave ovens
- Commercial use molds — Bakers' couches; Baking frames; Tart rings; Tart tampers (see all 11 examples)
- Commercial use ovens — Deck ovens; Direct gas fired ovens; Steam injected ovens; Tunnel ovens (see all 7 examples)
- Commercial use peelers — Produce peelers
- Commercial use pizza ovens — Pretzel ovens
- Commercial use ranges — Cooking burners; Hot plates
- Commercial use rice cookers — Rice cookers
- Commercial use rolling pins — Dough dockers; Rolling pins
- Commercial use scales — Balance scales; Digital scales; Portion scales; Weigh hoppers
- Commercial use scoops — Cookie scoops; Flour scoops
- Commercial use smokers or smoke ovens — Industrial kitchen food smokers
- Commercial use steamers — Bagel kettles; Steam kettles
- Commercial use strainers — China caps; Chinois; Kitchen strainers; Skimmers (see all 5 examples)
- Commercial use toasters — Electric salamanders; Industrial toasters
- Commercial use waffle irons — Waffle irons
- Commercial use whisks — Commercial food whisks
- Cookie cutters — Bakery cookie cutters
- Cooking machinery — Depanning machines; Egg breaking machines
- Cooling machine — Cooling tunnels; Pan cooling towers
- Crushing machinery — Sugar/spice pulverizers
- Dehydrating machinery — Food drying equipment
- Desktop computers
- Domestic apple corer — Fruit corers
- Domestic baking pans — Bread pans; Pullman loaf pans; Ramekins
- Domestic baking sheets — Baking sheets
- Domestic biscuit cutters — Biscuit dough cutters; Doughnut cutters
- Domestic bread slicing guide — Pastry slicing jigs
- Domestic cooling racks — Food cooling racks
- Domestic double boilers — Double boilers
- Domestic dough press — Manual dough presses
- Domestic food scrapers — Dough scrapers
- Domestic kitchen funnels — Pastry filling funnels
- Domestic kitchen or food thermometers — Candy thermometers; Digital food thermometers; Dough thermometers; Refrigerator thermometers
- Domestic kitchen spatulas — Bowl scrapers; Icing spreaders; Perforated grill spatulas; Straight spatulas (see all 5 examples)
- Domestic kitchen timers — Digital kitchen timers
- Domestic kitchen tongs — Kitchen tongs
- Domestic kitchen wire whips — Wire whips
- Domestic knife sharpeners — Honing steels; Sharpening stones
- Domestic mandolin — Mandolines
- Domestic muffin pans — Bakery muffin pans
- Domestic pastry brush — Pastry brushes
- Domestic pizza cutters — Pizza cutters
- Domestic sifter — Ingredient sifters
- Domestic strainers or colanders — Colanders
- Domestic tortilla bakers — Tortilla grills
- Domestic vegetable brush — Vegetable cleaning brushes
- Domestic whipped cream maker — Cream whippers; Whipped cream machines
- Domestic wooden oven paddle — Oven peels
- Double arm kneading mixers — Continuous kneading machines; Horizontal dough mixers; Planetary mixers
- Filling machinery — Cake depositors; Pastry filling machines
- Fire blankets — Fire suppression blankets
- Fire extinguishers — Kitchen fire extinguishers
- Forklifts — Lift trucks
- Forming machine — Automatic dough presses; Bagel dividers; Rotary molders; Tartlet machines (see all 20 examples)
- Hand sprayers — Spray bottles; Sprayers
- Hand trucks or accessories — Hand trucks
- Helical blade mixer — Spiral mixers; Tilt mixers
- Hoists — Dough trough hoists
- Ice cream machines
- Ice dispensers — Ice machines
- Ice shaver machines or accessories — Ice shaver
- Ink cartridges — Edible-ink cartridges
- Laser printers — Computer laser printers
- Lifts — Oven loaders
- Notebook computers — Laptop computers
- Pallet trucks — Pallet jacks
- Preduster — Doughnut tumblers; Flour dusters
- Processing tanks — Fermentation tanks
- Razor knives — Box cutters
- Remote reading thermometers — Probe thermometers
- Rulers — Measuring sticks
- Single screw mixers — Fork mixers
- Slicing machinery — Guillotine cutters; Reciprocating blade slicers
- Spice or salt or pepper shakers — Sugar shakers
- Tablet computers
- Walk in freezers — Industrial freezing equipment
- Walk in refrigerators — Industrial refrigeration equipment
- Wrapping machinery — Wrapping machines
Technology used in this occupation:
- Analytical or scientific software — Axxya Systems Nutritionist Pro; Enggist & Grandjean EGS CALCMENU software; SweetWARE nutraCoster Professional
- Data base user interface and query software — At Your Service Software CostGuard; Barrington Software CookenPro; Culinary Software Services ChefTec
- Desktop publishing software — SoftCafe MenuPro
- Electronic mail software — Email software
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — Afcom Datasafe Computer Services FlexiBake; Sage 100 ERP; SweetWARE SmallPICS; TwinPeaks Software Visual Z-Bake (see all 7 examples)
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Inventory management software — SweetWARE stockCoster
- Materials requirements planning logistics and supply chain software — Enggist & Grandjean EGS F&B Control
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Time accounting software — ADP Enterprise eTIME
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
- Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
Detailed Work Activities
- Order materials, supplies, or equipment.
- Direct operational or production activities.
- Measure ingredients or substances to be used in production processes.
- Record operational or production data.
- Adjust temperature controls of ovens or other heating equipment.
- Monitor equipment operation to ensure proper functioning.
- Apply protective or decorative finishes to workpieces or products.
- Shape clay or dough to create products.
- Operate cooking, baking, or other food preparation equipment.
- Load materials into production equipment.
- Operate cutting equipment.
- Evaluate quality of food ingredients or prepared foods.
- Inspect food products.
- Clean production equipment.
- Determine food production methods.
- Maintain production or processing equipment.
- Spend Time Standing — 98% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 83% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others — 66% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 66% responded “Every day.”
- Physical Proximity — 44% responded “Very close (near touching).”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 60% responded “Some freedom.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 44% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 61% responded “Some freedom.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 65% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 64% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 40% responded “Extremely important.”
- Telephone — 41% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 31% responded “Extremely important.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 49% responded “Every day.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 37% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Time Pressure — 42% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 38% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 42% responded “Less than half the time.”
|Title||Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed|
|Education||These occupations usually require a high school diploma.|
|Related Experience||Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.|
|SVP Range||(4.0 to < 6.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|36||High school diploma or equivalent|
|30||Less than high school diploma|
Interest code: RC
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$11.35 hourly, $23,600 annual|
|Employment (2012)||168,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Slower than average (3% to 7%)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||50,100|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Bakers . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.