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Details Report for:
51-3011.00 - Bakers

Mix and bake ingredients to produce breads, rolls, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, or other baked goods.

Sample of reported job titles: Baker, Mixer, Dough Mixer, Bakery Manager, Machine Operator, Bakery Clerk, Cake Decorator, Pastry Chef, Scaler, Bakery Chef

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
81   Core Observe color of products being baked and adjust oven temperatures, humidity, or conveyor speeds accordingly.
80   Core Set oven temperatures and place items into hot ovens for baking.
78   Core Combine measured ingredients in bowls of mixing, blending, or cooking machinery.
78   Core Measure or weigh flour or other ingredients to prepare batters, doughs, fillings, or icings, using scales or graduated containers.
77   Core Roll, knead, cut, or shape dough to form sweet rolls, pie crusts, tarts, cookies, or other products.
76   Core Place dough in pans, molds, or on sheets and bake in production ovens or on grills.
76   Core Check the quality of raw materials to ensure that standards and specifications are met.
76   Core Adapt the quantity of ingredients to match the amount of items to be baked.
75   Core Apply glazes, icings, or other toppings to baked goods, using spatulas or brushes.
75   Core Check equipment to ensure that it meets health and safety regulations and perform maintenance or cleaning, as necessary.
75   Core Decorate baked goods, such as cakes or pastries.
74   Core Set time and speed controls for mixing machines, blending machines, or steam kettles so that ingredients will be mixed or cooked according to instructions.
73   Core Prepare or maintain inventory or production records.
71   Core Direct or coordinate bakery deliveries.
65   Core Order or receive supplies or equipment.
56   Supplemental Operate slicing or wrapping machines.
55   Supplemental Develop new recipes for baked goods.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Cake decorating equipment or moulds — Cake decorating combs; Cake decorating palette knives; Rose nails; Textured mats (see all 13 examples)
Commercial use cutlery — Chefs' knives; Paring knives; Pastry wheels; Serrated knives (see all 11 examples)
Commercial use food warmers — Chocolate warmers; Dough proofers; Food warmers; Hot cases
Commercial use icing sets or bags — Cake decorating tips; Cake decorating tubes; Pastry bags; Squeeze bottles
Commercial use molds — Bakers' couches; Baking frames; Tart rings; Tart tampers (see all 11 examples)
Commercial use ovens — Deck ovens; Direct gas fired ovens; Steam injected ovens; Tunnel ovens (see all 7 examples)
Commercial use scales — Balance scales; Digital scales; Portion scales; Weigh hoppers
Commercial use strainers — China caps; Chinois; Kitchen strainers; Skimmers (see all 5 examples)
Domestic kitchen spatulas — Bowl scrapers; Icing spreaders; Perforated grill spatulas; Straight spatulas (see all 5 examples)
Forming machine — Automatic dough presses; Bagel dividers; Rotary molders; Tartlet machines (see all 20 examples)

Technology used in this occupation:

Analytical or scientific software — Axxya Systems Nutritionist Pro; Enggist & Grandjean EGS CALCMENU software; SweetWARE nutraCoster Professional
Data base user interface and query software — At Your Service Software CostGuard; Barrington Software CookenPro; Culinary Software Services ChefTec
Desktop publishing software — SoftCafe MenuPro
Electronic mail software — Email software
Enterprise resource planning ERP software — Afcom Datasafe Computer Services FlexiBake; Sage 100 ERP; SweetWARE SmallPICS; TwinPeaks Software Visual Z-Bake (see all 7 examples)
Internet browser software — Web browser software
Office suite software — Microsoft Office software
Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
Time accounting software — ADP Enterprise eTIME
Word processing software — Microsoft Word

See all 128 T2 categories

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
69   Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
63   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
55   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
52   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
52   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
45   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
45   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
44   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
39   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
39   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
35   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
33   Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
32   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
32   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
31   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
29   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
27   Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
25   Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
20   Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
19   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
19   Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
19   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
19   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
17   Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
16   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
14   Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
13   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
  Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
  Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
  Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
  Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
  History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
56   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
53   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
50   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
50   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
50   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
50   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
47   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
47   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
44   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
38   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
38   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
35   Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
35   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
35   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
35   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
31   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
31   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
28   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
28   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
28   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
28   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
28   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
28   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
25   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
22   Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
22   Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
19   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
13   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
13   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
  Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
  Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
  Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
63   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
63   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
60   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
56   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
56   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
53   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
53   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
50   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
50   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
50   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
50   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
50   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
47   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
47   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
47   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
47   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
47   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
44   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
44   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
44   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
41   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
41   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
41   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
41   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
38   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
38   Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
38   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
35   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
31   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
31   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
28   Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
28   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
28   Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
28   Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
25   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
25   Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
25   Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
22   Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
22   Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
22   Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
22   Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
19   Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
16   Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
13   Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
  Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
  Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
 Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
74   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
73   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
  • Monitor equipment operation to ensure proper functioning.
69   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
  • Inspect food products.
66   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
65   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
63   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
63   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Determine food production methods.
62   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
60   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
  • Measure ingredients or substances to be used in production processes.
59   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
  • Evaluate quality of food ingredients or prepared foods.
56   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
  • Operate cooking, baking, or other food preparation equipment.
  • Operate cutting equipment.
54   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
53   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
53   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
53   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
  • Adjust temperature controls of ovens or other heating equipment.
  • Apply protective or decorative finishes to workpieces or products.
  • Shape clay or dough to create products.
52   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
52   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
51   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
51   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
51   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
49   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Direct operational or production activities.
49   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
  • Order materials, supplies, or equipment.
48   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
  • Clean production equipment.
  • Load materials into production equipment.
46   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
46   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
45   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
45   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
45   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
44   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
42   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
42   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
38   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
38   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
36   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Record operational or production data.
35   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
34   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
32   Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
26   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
23   Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
18   Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
  • Maintain production or processing equipment.
16   Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Work Context
Percentage of Top Responses
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?


98     Continually or almost continually
Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?


83     Every day
Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?


66     Constant contact with others
20     Occasional contact with others
Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?


66     Every day
18     Never
Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?


44     Very close (near touching)
27     Moderately close (at arm's length)
Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?


21     A lot of freedom
60     Some freedom
12     No freedom
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?


44     Continually or almost continually
13     More than half the time
12     About half the time
31     Less than half the time
Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?


15     A lot of freedom
61     Some freedom
17     Very little freedom
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?


65     Continually or almost continually
31     Never
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?


64     Every day
32     Never
Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?


40     Extremely important
13     Very important
32     Important
Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?


41     Every day
25     Once a month or more but not every week
12     Never
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?


31     Extremely important
20     Very important
17     Important
16     Fairly important
Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?


49     Every day
29     Never
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?


37     Very high responsibility
13     High responsibility
17     Moderate responsibility
28     No responsibility
Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?


42     Every day
16     Once a week or more but not every day
34     Never
Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?


38     Every day
22     Once a week or more but not every day
34     Never
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?


22     Continually or almost continually
17     More than half the time
42     Less than half the time
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?


32     Every day
18     Once a week or more but not every day
42     Never
Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.


37     More than 40 hours
22     40 hours
41     Less than 40 hours
Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?


33     Extremely important
25     Fairly important
31     Not important at all
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?


21     Very important results
26     Important results
40     No results
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?


26     Very high responsibility
20     Moderate responsibility
48     No responsibility
Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?


36     Moderately competitive
26     Slightly competitive
24     Not at all competitive
Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?


12     Continually or almost continually
11     More than half the time
56     Less than half the time
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?


33     Once a week or more but not every day
11     Once a year or more but not every month
48     Never
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?


25     Every day
53     Never
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?


19     Extremely important
23     Fairly important
47     Not important at all
Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?


17     Every day
17     Once a week or more but not every day
60     Never
Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?


11     Extremely important
12     Important
38     Fairly important
33     Not important at all
Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?


51     Slightly automated
32     Not at all automated
Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?


13     Once a week or more but not every day
14     Once a month or more but not every week
24     Once a year or more but not every month
49     Never
Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?


18     Once a month or more but not every week
63     Never
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)


12     Very important
63     Not important at all
Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?


31     Less than half the time
53     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?


15     Every day
79     Never
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?


17     Once a week or more but not every day
79     Never
Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?


78     Never
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?


12     Every day
84     Never
Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?


83     Never
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?


84     Never
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?


87     Never
Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?


17     Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
81     Regular (established routine, set schedule)
Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?


15     Fairly serious
78     Not serious at all
Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?


82     Never
Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?


13     Less than half the time
82     Never
Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?


84     Never
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?


91     Never
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?


89     Never
Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?


93     Never
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?


89     Never
Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?


91     Never
Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?


91     Never
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?


98     Never
Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?


100     Never
Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?


100     Never
Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?


100     Never

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed
Education These occupations usually require a high school diploma.
Related Experience Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.
Job Training Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.
SVP Range (4.0 to < 6.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
36   High school diploma or equivalent Help
30   Less than high school diploma
16   Post-secondary certificate Help

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Credentials

Find Training Find Certifications Find Apprenticeships

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
95   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
50   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
33   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
22   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
  Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
 Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
85   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
76   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
71   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
69   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
68   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
65   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
64   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
64   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
64   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
64   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
63   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
63   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
56   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
53   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
49   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
42   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
67   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
45   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
39   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
33   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
33   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
25   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

35-1012.00 First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers Bright Outlook
35-2011.00 Cooks, Fast Food Bright Outlook
35-2012.00 Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria Bright Outlook
35-2014.00 Cooks, Restaurant   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
35-3011.00 Bartenders Bright Outlook
35-3021.00 Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food Bright Outlook
51-3021.00 Butchers and Meat Cutters
51-3092.00 Food Batchmakers
51-9061.00 Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers Bright Outlook   Green Occupation Green
53-7064.00 Packers and Packagers, Hand Bright Outlook

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2013) $11.13 hourly, $23,160 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 168,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Slower than average (3% to 7%) Slower than average (3% to 7%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 50,100
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Retail Trade (42% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

Find Jobs Job Banks

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Bakers external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.

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