Summary Report for:
27-2012.02 - Directors- Stage, Motion Pictures, Television, and Radio
Interpret script, conduct rehearsals, and direct activities of cast and technical crew for stage, motion pictures, television, or radio programs.
Sample of reported job titles: Animation Director, Artistic Director, Commercial Director, Creative Director, Production Director, Production Stage Manager, Stage Director, Stage Manager, Theater Director, TV Director (Television Director)
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Plan details such as framing, composition, camera movement, sound, and actor movement for each shot or scene.
- Communicate to actors the approach, characterization, and movement needed for each scene in such a way that rehearsals and takes are minimized.
- Direct live broadcasts, films and recordings, or non-broadcast programming for public entertainment or education.
- Study and research scripts to determine how they should be directed.
- Supervise and coordinate the work of camera, lighting, design, and sound crew members.
- Confer with technical directors, managers, crew members, and writers to discuss details of production, such as photography, script, music, sets, and costumes.
- Consult with writers, producers, or actors about script changes or "workshop" scripts, through rehearsal with writers and actors to create final drafts.
- Identify and approve equipment and elements required for productions, such as scenery, lights, props, costumes, choreography, and music.
- Establish pace of programs and sequences of scenes according to time requirements and cast and set accessibility.
- Compile scripts, program notes, and other material related to productions.
- Confer with stage managers to arrange schedules for rehearsals, costume fittings, and sound or light development.
- Perform producers' duties, such as securing financial backing, establishing and administering budgets, and recruiting cast and crew.
- Select plays or scripts for production and determine how material should be interpreted and performed.
- Hold auditions for parts or negotiate contracts with actors determined suitable for specific roles, working in conjunction with producers.
- Compile cue words and phrases and cue announcers, cast members, and technicians during performances.
- Collaborate with producers to hire crew members, such as art directors, cinematographers, and costume designers.
- Cut and edit film or tape to integrate component parts into desired sequences.
- Choose settings and locations for films and determine how scenes will be shot in these settings.
- Collaborate with film and sound editors during the post-production process as films are edited and soundtracks are added.
- Create graphics for television broadcasts.
- Review film daily to check on work in progress and to plan for future filming.
- Interpret stage-set diagrams to determine stage layouts and supervise placement of equipment and scenery.
- Promote and market productions by giving interviews, participating in talk shows, and making other public appearances.
- Introduce plays and meet with audiences after shows to explain how the play was interpreted.
- Create and approve storyboards in conjunction with art directors.
- Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop ; Chyron CAMIO; Graphics creation software
- Instant messaging software — Twitter
- Music or sound editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Audition; Avid Technology Pro Tools; MAGIX Software Sound Forge; Sony Vegas Pro (see all 5 examples)
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Video creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe After Effects; Apple Final Cut Pro; Avid Technology Media Composer; Avid Technology NewsCutter (see all 7 examples)
- Web page creation and editing software — Content management systems CMS; Facebook
- Web platform development software — Hypertext markup language HTML
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word ; Scripting software
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Audio mixing consoles — Sound mixing equipment
- Audio video console — Multimedia editing equipment
- Camera controllers — Robotic cameras
- Digital camcorders or video cameras — Digital video cameras
- Electronic viewfinder — Lens finders
- Media control systems — Grass Valley Ignite Automated Production System; Video switchers
- Notebook computers
- Oscilloscopes — Waveform monitors
- Personal computers
- Special purpose telephones — Multi-line telephone systems
- Stage or projection or studio lighting system — Studio lighting systems
- Tablet computers
- Vectorscope — Vectorscopes
- Video editors — Video editing equipment
- Visual presenters — Teleprompters
- Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
Detailed Work Activities
- Determine technical requirements of productions or projects.
- Coordinate artistic activities.
- Direct productions or performances.
- Collaborate with others to determine technical details of productions.
- Study scripts to determine project requirements.
- Coordinate activities of production personnel.
- Determine presentation subjects or content.
- Direct fundraising or financing activities.
- Audition or interview potential performers or staff members.
- Negotiate for services.
- Collaborate with others to prepare or perform artistic productions.
- Select staff, team members, or performers.
- Select materials or props.
- Edit audio or video recordings.
- Compile technical information or documentation.
- Create computer-generated graphics or animation.
- Manage content of broadcasts or presentations.
- Review details of technical drawings or specifications.
- Promote products, activities, or organizations.
- Inform viewers, listeners, or audiences.
- Prepare production storyboards.
- Electronic Mail — 100% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 99% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 87% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 71% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 72% responded “Extremely important.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 69% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Contact With Others — 77% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 77% responded “Extremely important.”
- Telephone — 66% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 47% responded “Very important results.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 46% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 49% responded “Every day.”
- Time Pressure — 51% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Physical Proximity — 50% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Deal With External Customers — 39% responded “Extremely important.”
- Letters and Memos — 38% responded “Every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 64% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Level of Competition — 35% responded “Extremely competitive.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 47% responded “About half the time.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 46% responded “Important.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 40% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 36% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
- Public Speaking — 30% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.|
|Related Experience||A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.|
|Job Zone Examples||Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.|
|SVP Range||(7.0 to < 8.0)|
Interest code: EA Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wages data collected from Producers and Directors.
Employment data collected from Producers and Directors.
Industry data collected from Producers and Directors.
|Median wages (2018)||$34.46 hourly, $71,680 annual|
|Employment (2018)||152,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2018-2028)||Average (4% to 6%)|
|Projected job openings (2018-2028)||16,000|
|Top industries (2018)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2018 wage data and 2018-2028 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2018-2028). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Actors' Equity Association
- Communications Workers of America
- Directors Guild of America
- International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
- National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians - Communications Workers of America
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Producers and directors
- Radio Television Digital News Association
- Screen Actors Guild - American Federation of Television and Radio Artists
- The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers
- The National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences
- Theatre Communications Group
- Theatre for Young Audiences/USA
- Writers Guild of America East
- Writers Guild of America West