Summary Report for:
27-2012.02 - Directors- Stage, Motion Pictures, Television, and Radio
Interpret script, conduct rehearsals, and direct activities of cast and technical crew for stage, motion pictures, television, or radio programs.
Sample of reported job titles: Artistic Director, Assistant Director, Associate Artistic Director, Director, News Production Supervisor, Newscast Director, Stage Manager, Technical Director, Television Director (TV Director), Television Newscast Director
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Supervise and coordinate the work of camera, lighting, design, and sound crew members.
- Plan details such as framing, composition, camera movement, sound, and actor movement for each shot or scene.
- Direct live broadcasts, films and recordings, or non-broadcast programming for public entertainment or education.
- Confer with technical directors, managers, crew members, and writers to discuss details of production, such as photography, script, music, sets, and costumes.
- Compile cue words and phrases and cue announcers, cast members, and technicians during performances.
- Establish pace of programs and sequences of scenes according to time requirements and cast and set accessibility.
- Identify and approve equipment and elements required for productions, such as scenery, lights, props, costumes, choreography, and music.
- Consult with writers, producers, or actors about script changes or "workshop" scripts, through rehearsal with writers and actors to create final drafts.
- Select plays or scripts for production and determine how material should be interpreted and performed.
- Study and research scripts to determine how they should be directed.
- Communicate to actors the approach, characterization, and movement needed for each scene in such a way that rehearsals and takes are minimized.
- Collaborate with producers to hire crew members, such as art directors, cinematographers, and costumer designers.
- Collaborate with film and sound editors during the post-production process as films are edited and soundtracks are added.
- Create graphics for television broadcasts.
- Choose settings and locations for films and determine how scenes will be shot in these settings.
- Cut and edit film or tape to integrate component parts into desired sequences.
- Interpret stage-set diagrams to determine stage layouts and supervise placement of equipment and scenery.
- Confer with stage managers to arrange schedules for rehearsals, costume fittings, and sound or light development.
- Hold auditions for parts or negotiate contracts with actors determined suitable for specific roles, working in conjunction with producers.
- Compile scripts, program notes, and other material related to productions.
- Review film daily to check on work in progress and to plan for future filming.
- Create and approve storyboards in conjunction with art directors.
- Promote and market productions by giving interviews, participating in talk shows, and making other public appearances.
- Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop ; Chyron CAMIO; Graphics creation software
- Instant messaging software — Twitter
- Music or sound editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Audition; Avid Technology Pro Tools; MAGIX Software Sound Forge; Sony Vegas Pro (see all 5 examples)
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Video creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe After Effects; Apple Final Cut Pro ; Avid Technology Media Composer; Avid Technology NewsCutter (see all 7 examples)
- Web page creation and editing software — Content management systems CMS; Facebook
- Web platform development software — Hypertext markup language HTML
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word ; Scripting software
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Audio mixing consoles — Sound mixing equipment
- Audio video console — Multimedia editing equipment
- Camera controllers — Robotic cameras
- Digital camcorders or video cameras — Digital video cameras
- Electronic viewfinder — Lens finders
- Media control systems — Grass Valley Ignite Automated Production System; Video switchers
- Notebook computers
- Oscilloscopes — Waveform monitors
- Personal computers
- Special purpose telephones — Multi-line telephone systems
- Stage or projection or studio lighting system — Studio lighting systems
- Tablet computers
- Vectorscope — Vectorscopes
- Video editors — Video editing equipment
- Visual presenters — Teleprompters
- Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
- Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
Detailed Work Activities
- Coordinate activities of production personnel.
- Determine technical requirements of productions or projects.
- Direct productions or performances.
- Collaborate with others to determine technical details of productions.
- Study scripts to determine project requirements.
- Coordinate artistic activities.
- Select staff, team members, or performers.
- Create computer-generated graphics or animation.
- Determine presentation subjects or content.
- Select materials or props.
- Collaborate with others to prepare or perform artistic productions.
- Edit audio or video recordings.
- Review details of technical drawings or specifications.
- Audition or interview potential performers or staff members.
- Negotiate for services.
- Compile technical information or documentation.
- Manage content of broadcasts or presentations.
- Prepare production storyboards.
- Promote products, activities, or organizations.
- Direct fundraising or financing activities.
- Inform viewers, listeners, or audiences.
- Electronic Mail — 100% responded “Every day.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 99% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 82% responded “Extremely important.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 77% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 81% responded “Extremely important.”
- Time Pressure — 72% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 83% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 70% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 77% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 60% responded “Extremely important.”
- Contact With Others — 47% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 49% responded “Important results.”
- Telephone — 77% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 65% responded “Extremely important.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 38% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 18% responded “More than half the time.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 42% responded “Some freedom.”
- Physical Proximity — 45% responded “Slightly close (e.g., shared office).”
- Level of Competition — 39% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 67% responded “40 hours.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 30% responded “About half the time.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 32% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Consequence of Error — 37% responded “Very serious.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 29% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 37% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
|Title||Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.|
|Related Experience||A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.|
|Job Zone Examples||Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.|
|SVP Range||(7.0 to < 8.0)|
Interest code: EA
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wages data collected from Producers and Directors.
Employment data collected from Producers and Directors.
Industry data collected from Producers and Directors.
|Median wages (2017)||$34.43 hourly, $71,620 annual|
|Employment (2016)||135,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2016-2026)||Faster than average (10% to 14%)|
|Projected job openings (2016-2026)||14,100|
|Top industries (2016)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2017 wage data and 2016-2026 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2016-2026). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Actors' Equity Association
- Communications Workers of America
- Directors Guild of America
- International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
- National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians - Communications Workers of America
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Producers and directors
- Radio Television Digital News Association
- Screen Actors Guild - American Federation of Television and Radio Artists
- The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers
- The National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences
- Theatre Communications Group
- Theatre for Young Audiences/USA
- Writers Guild of America East
- Writers Guild of America West