Summary Report for:
47-2221.00 - Structural Iron and Steel Workers
Raise, place, and unite iron or steel girders, columns, and other structural members to form completed structures or structural frameworks. May erect metal storage tanks and assemble prefabricated metal buildings.
Sample of reported job titles: Fitter / Welder, Iron Worker, Ironworker, Steel Fabricator, Steel Worker, Structural Steel Erector, Tower Hand
Tasks | Tools & Technology | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Read specifications or blueprints to determine the locations, quantities, or sizes of materials required.
- Verify vertical and horizontal alignment of structural steel members, using plumb bobs, laser equipment, transits, or levels.
- Connect columns, beams, and girders with bolts, following blueprints and instructions from supervisors.
- Hoist steel beams, girders, and columns into place, using cranes, or signal hoisting equipment operators to lift and position structural-steel members.
- Bolt aligned structural steel members in position for permanent riveting, bolting, or welding into place.
- Ride on girders or other structural steel members to position them or use rope to guide them into position.
- Fabricate metal parts, such as steel frames, columns, beams, or girders, according to blueprints or instructions from supervisors.
- Pull, push, or pry structural steel members into approximate positions for bolting into place.
- Cut, bend, or weld steel pieces, using metal shears, torches, or welding equipment.
- Fasten structural steel members to hoist cables, using chains, cables, or rope.
- Assemble hoisting equipment or rigging, such as cables, pulleys, or hooks, to move heavy equipment or materials.
- Force structural steel members into final positions, using turnbuckles, crowbars, jacks, or hand tools.
- Erect metal or precast concrete components for structures, such as buildings, bridges, dams, towers, storage tanks, fences, or highway guard rails.
- Unload and position prefabricated steel units for hoisting as needed.
- Drive drift pins through rivet holes to align rivet holes in structural steel members with corresponding holes in previously placed members.
- Dismantle structures or equipment.
- Insert sealing strips, wiring, insulating material, ladders, flanges, gauges, or valves, depending on types of structures being assembled.
- Catch hot rivets in buckets and insert rivets in holes, using tongs.
- Place blocks under reinforcing bars used to reinforce floors.
Tools & Technology
Tools used in this occupation:
- Adjustable widemouth pliers
- Adjustable wrenches
- Air compressors
- Below the hook device — Spreader beams
- Blow torch — Blow torches
- Bolt cutters
- C clamps
- Chalk lines
- Cold chisels
- Drive pins — Bull pins
- Ear plugs
- End cut pliers — Side cutting pliers
- Fall protection lanyard — Safety lanyards
- Fire extinguishers
- Forge die — Forging dies
- Gas welding or brazing or cutting apparatus — Rod ovens
- Hacksaw — Hacksaws
- Hard hats
- Hoists — Tuggers
- Hydraulic pumps
- Jacks — Stressing jacks
- Levels — Laser levels; Torpedo levels
- Life vests or preservers — Life preservers
- Lifts — Power lifts
- Lighters — Strikers
- Locking pliers — Vise grip pliers
- Manlift or personnel lift — Swing stages
- Mill saw file — Single-cut mill saw files
- Notebook computers
- Open end wrenches
- Personal computers
- Pipe wrenches
- Plasma arc welding machine — Plasma cutters
- Plaster or mortar mixers — Grout mixers
- Plumb bobs
- Pneumatic hammer — Pneumatic hammers
- Power drills — Electric drills
- Power grinders
- Power riveter — Rivet guns
- Power saws — Cutoff saws
- Protective coveralls
- Protective gloves — Safety gloves
- Pry bars — Crowbars
- Punches or nail sets or drifts — Center punches; Drift pins
- Rivet tools — Rivet busters
- Rubber mallet — Rubber mallets
- Safety boots
- Safety glasses
- Safety harnesses or belts — Protective harnesses; Safety belts
- Screwdrivers — Flat head screwdrivers; Phillips head screwdrivers; Robertson screwdrivers
- Sheet metal forming machine — Decoilers
- Sledge hammer — Sledgehammers
- Socket sets — Socket wrench sets
- Specialty wrenches — Spud wrenches
- Spot welding machine — Portable welding machines
- Squares — Combination squares
- Staple guns
- Tape measures
- Tinners snips — Tin snips
- Tongs — Rivet tongs
- Two way radios
- Utility knives
- Welder gloves — Welding gloves
- Welding masks — Welding helmets; Welding hoods
- Welding or cutting tip — Welding tips
- Wire brushes
- Workshop cranes
Technology used in this occupation:
- Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
- Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
- Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
- Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
- Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
- Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
- Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
- Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
- Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
- Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
- Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
- Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
- Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
- Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
- Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
- Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
Detailed Work Activities
- Operate cranes, hoists, or other moving or lifting equipment.
- Position safety or support equipment.
- Fabricate parts or components.
- Install metal structural components.
- Position structural components.
- Cut metal components for installation.
- Weld metal components.
- Install electrical components, equipment, or systems.
- Review blueprints or specifications to determine work requirements.
- Assemble temporary equipment or structures.
- Install insulation in equipment or structures.
- Verify alignment of structures or equipment.
- Signal equipment operators to indicate proper equipment positioning.
- Assist skilled construction or extraction personnel.
- Load or unload materials used in construction or extraction.
- Install gauges or controls.
- Dismantle equipment or temporary structures.
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 99% responded “Every day.”
- Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 93% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 78% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 85% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 63% responded “Extremely important.”
- Exposed to High Places — 76% responded “Every day.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 69% responded “Every day.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 72% responded “Every day.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — 65% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 60% responded “Extremely important.”
- Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — 66% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others — 66% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 50% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Spend Time Standing — 46% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — 61% responded “Every day.”
- Time Pressure — 52% responded “Every day.”
- Consequence of Error — 48% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Exposed to Contaminants — 44% responded “Every day.”
- Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — 54% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 41% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Telephone — 39% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 37% responded “Some freedom.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 36% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — 44% responded “More than half the time.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 63% responded “40 hours.”
- Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — 55% responded “Every day.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 39% responded “Extremely important.”
- Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 36% responded “Every day.”
- In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — 42% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 39% responded “Moderate results.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 37% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — 32% responded “More than half the time.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 29% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 36% responded “About half the time.”
- Physical Proximity — 58% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
- Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — 37% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 30% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — 45% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Level of Competition — 29% responded “Extremely competitive.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 37% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
- Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — 38% responded “Less than half the time.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 45% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
- Outdoors, Under Cover — 36% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
|Title||Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed|
|Education||These occupations usually require a high school diploma.|
|Related Experience||Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.|
|SVP Range||(4.0 to < 6.0)|
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|64||High school diploma or equivalent|
|17||Some college, no degree|
Interest code: RIC
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2014)||$23.17 hourly, $48,200 annual|
|Employment (2012)||58,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2012-2022)||Much faster than average (22% or higher)|
|Projected job openings (2012-2022)||31,500|
|Top industries (2012)|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2014 wage data and 2012-2022 employment projections . "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Structural Iron and Steel Workers . Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition.